Държавен изпит за Английска филология

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2. Nexus Constructions (Synt)
I. Intro - an NC is a structure centered around a non-finite verb form, i.e. an infinitive, an -ing form, or a past participle. NC vs. the clause. Just like the clause the N expresses a predication. In this they are similar and are based on a predicative relation. The difference is that in the clause the syntagmatic relations are explicitly marked (who does what to whom), whereas in the NC these relations remain in the sphere of logic and open for interpretation according to the general and the immediate context. Therefore NCs are more implicit which makes them a preferred variant of expression in cases when brevity and implicitness are desired. In Eng they are much more widely used that in Bg-an. cf. Working hard, he achieved a lot. He worked hard and he achieved a lot. NCs may have different functions in the ∑. a) a S - ex. Smoking cigars may damage your health. b) a predicative - ex. She appeared to like it. c) object - ex. I saw this play performed last summer. d) the attribute - ex. His anxiety to meet you is unabated. e) adverbial modifier - ex. He made a fortune by selling junk food. Relations between the constituents of a nexus (inside the nexus): 1. S-P relation - ex. I saw him run. 2. P-O relation - ex. Seeing the chocolates, I grabbed one. 3. P-AM relation - ex. I want you to listen carefully. 4. S-Cs relation - ex. They elected him president. II. Types of NCs: 1. NC with the infinitive A) Accusativus cum Infinitivis - I saw him smile.

[Nominal Adj form]
Accusativ here means objective. This structure should be differentiated from the combination Od-Co. cf. I knocked him flat. I saw him run.

Od Co
The difference between Od and Co on the one hand and the ACI on the other side is that the ___ relation in the former is S-Cs, whereas the ___ relation in the latter is S-P. The ACI is used with the following semantic group verbs: a) verbs of sense perception - see, hear, observe, watch, notice, feel + infinitive without "to". Ex. I heard the train arrive. I saw him snore. With verbs of mental perception + "to" - ex. I believe him to have arrived. She realized him to be a wheeler-dealer. b) verbs of command, desire and permission - command, order, tell, direct, ask, wish, desire, want, forbid, permit, let, allow + "to" - exception let + infinitive without "to"; Leave her be. - Остави я на мира. She ordered me to leave.

c) verbs of causation - cause, get, make, have, force, compel + "to" - I forced them to leave. Exceptions: After "make" and "have" no "to". I had him mow the lawn. I made him leave the room. With help - with "to" and without "to" - both are correct. The WO in ACI is normally accusativis then infinitivus. The reverse WO is sometimes also possible. Usually after the verb let. Ex. He let fall the book. She let go my hand. There is a certain rivalry between the ACI and the participial '-ing' structure. I saw him run. I saw him running.

Dry fact (да бяга) the process (как бягаше)
B) Nominativus cum Infinitivo. NCI is in a way passive variant of the ACI. cf. I saw him run. (ACI)

He was seen to run (NCI)
A major difference between the ACI and NCI is that the former is an integral, continuous, uninterrupted structure, whereas the latter is split discontinuous structure. Another difference is that the particle "to" is retained in most cases in the NCI but not in the ACI. A third difference is that the ACI is used in active voice sentences while the typical usage of the NCI is after passive verbs. However, in some cases, the NCI may also appear with intransitive verbs in the active voice: seem, appear, happen, chance. Ex. She seems to like it. He happened to arrive on time. Also after phrases like be sure, be certain, be likely ex. She is likely to like it. He is sure to be late. C) the "for...to" construction - this structure is a means of providing the infinitive with clearly expressed (explicit) subject. It may have the following functions in the ∑: a) a S - For John to marry this girl would be a disaster. b) a predicative - The best thing is for them to take the appropriate measures. c) an attribute - I gave permission for him to go. d) object - He proposes for you to leave immediately. e) adv mod - She stretched out her hand for me to hold it. 2. NC with -ing form. The -ing form is featured in the following nexus constructions: a) an extrapositional attribute = loose attribute. This is a supplementive clause with a covert subject which refers to the main subject of the ∑. Ex. Saying no word, he gave her a kick.

Loose attribute S
b) absolute construction - this is a supplementive clause having its own subject. Ex. Nobody saying a word, they left the room. Absolute constructions can be verbless - ex. The lecture over, they went home. Pipe in mouth he sat by the fire. c) unattached participle - in this case the -ing form has no subject of its own and refers to no specific reference (only general reference, not to somebody but to anybody in general). Ex. Looking up the hill a cottage is seen. Such structures are rare but their use is relatively frequent is certain set phrases. Ex. Barring accidents he should be here by five. d) nexus object - it's in a rivalry with ACI cf. I saw him run. ≠ I saw him running. 3. NC with the past participle. A) extrapositional attribute. Broken in spirit he retired to his castle. B) absolute construction - The talks finished they retired to the hotel. C) unattached participle = dangling modifier. Once married, what could people do. D) nexus object - They found the house burned to the ground

3. Word Order (WO) (Synt)
The WO of the Eng ∑ is rather fixed and rigid because it is extensively employed for signaling the syntagmatic relations which it other languages are marked by morphological means. The basic WO pattern of a language is that of a declarative non-negative, non-emphatic clause, S-V-X, where X is O or C. There are two kinds of deviations from this basic WO pattern:
A) inversion - involves the S and verb: SVX → VSX. B) dislocation - when X is shifted to initial position: SVX → XSV (dislocation - inversion) SVX → XVS (dislocation + inversion). Dislocation and inversion are two fundamentally different phenomena. Inversion has primarily grammatical function to denote that a ∑ is not declarative. Dislocation has a primarily communicative function to denote emphasis. There are two types of inversion: a) functional inversion - It has grammatical function. Ex. He is here. → Is he here? = question forming. b) non-functional (dislocational) inversion - caused by diclocation - ex. I had hardly seen her. → Hardly had I seen her. Inversion can also be full and partial: a) full inversion - Vfull - S - ex. Long live peace. Here comes the sun. b) partial inversion - Vaux - S -Vfull - ex. Hardly had I seen her.
Functional Inversion - (grammatical function). This inversion serves to indicate that the ∑ is anything but declarative. This may occur: a) in questions - ex. He is .... → Is he...?, b) in optative ∑s - usually with the auxiliary "may" - ex. May you never see the light of day. (partial inversion), also in some fossilized ∑ phrases: ex. Long live peace! So be it! (full inversion). c) in imperative ∑s but only of the negative type with the S "you" (enhanced prohibition) - ex. Don't you do that! (partial inversion), d) in exclamatory ∑s. Here inversion occurs in very rare cases, only in literary style - ex. How boring is this movie!, e) in conditional clauses, when "if" is dropped - ex. Had I had money I would have married.
Dislocational inversion - (caused by dislocation). This kind is best studied along with the different types of dislocation: 1) dislocation of the S - since the S is normally in initial position it would be illogical to speak of its dislocation. It makes sense to speak of dislocation only in the case of the complex discontinuous S with anticipatory "it". ex. It is easy to deny things you don't understand. (normal case) To deny things you don't understand is easy. (dislocation of the S), 2) dislocation of the verb - since placing the verb in front of the S would mean inversion the only possibility of dislocation of the verb without marking the ∑ as inverted is in the so called "existential" ∑s with "there" - ex. There arrived a stranger in the town. There is inversion here but it doesn't mark non-declarativeness of the ∑. 3) dislocation of the O: a) with inversion - when the O is accompanied by a negative or limiting modifier - ex. Not a word did he say.
Neg mod O Vaux S
Hardly a hint did she drop.
Limit mod O Vaux S
b) without inversion - b.1) when the O is (or is accompanied by) a stress demonstrative pronoun - ex. Can you drink? That I can. Do you know that song. That song I know. b.2.)in colloquial exclamatory expressions - ex. A fine trade you are learning! b.3) in expressions of contrast with some - some or some - others - ex. Some things I can do others I cunt. b.4) in cases of link emphasis - ex. I wanted to solve the problem, and solved the problem I did. → SVO OSVaux. 4) Dislocation of the Pr: a) with inversion - a.1) in connection with negative or quantitative modifiers. Ex No coward was he. a.2) in concessive clauses (за отсъпка) with "as" - ex. Tired as was the man, he persisted. N.B. There is no inversion however if the S is a pronoun. Ex. Tired as he was, he persisted. b) without inversion - b.1) when Cs is a stressed demonstrative - ex. He is a shit. That he is. b.2) with link emphasis - ex. I expected her to be a bitch, and a bitch she was. b.3) in exclamatory ∑s - ex. Right you are! However in literary style inversion does not take place in such exclamations. Ex. Green is the valley, blue is the sky! 5) Dislocation of the AM - since the AM is relatively dynamic part of the ∑ it is not so fixed as the other parts; of interest are only the cases of its placing in initial position with inversion. a) when the AM has negative or restrictive meaning. Ex. Hardly had he done anything wrong. (restrictive) Never had she been there. (negative) b) when AM is an adverb of degree of frequency - ex. Often have I lain there. c) when the AM is expressed by the demonstrative adverbs "thus" and "so" - ex. Thus did the story end. So shall we finish the lecture.
Other cases of inversion: 1) when a statement is repeated with a substitute verb. But only when the S of the repeated statement differs from the S of the original statement - ex. I'm tired. - So am I. (different referents) cf. You look tired. - So I am. (same referent - no inversion). 2) there is full dislocational inversion when the postfix of the phrasal verb is placed initially. ex. Out went the lights, in rushed the guests. 3) inversion in dialogue, in the comment phrase. Ex. "No," said he/he said - inversion is possible but not obligatory. Here inversion is acceptable only with more common verbs like: say, reply, continue, etc. and should be avoided with less common verbs like: murmur, add, marvel, declare - ex. "No," he added/*added he. Inversion here is impossible when the common phrase is more complex. a) when the comment phrase contains an O -ex. No he said to me/*said he to me, b) when the comment phrase contains a compound verb form, ex. No said he/he has said/*has he said.
4. The Subject (Synt)
The S is the first main part of the ∑ and together with the predicate it constitutes the predicative bond which is the structural backbone of the ∑. The S is what the ∑ is about. This definition is relatively acceptable with some exceptions notably in personal ∑s. Ex. it's raining, where "it" is not the ∑ is about. A more structured definition of the S should take into account at least three parameters. A) meaning, b) syntactic relations and c) morphological realizations. Thus the S is: a) the "thing" (including abstract notions) whose features or actions are /being/ described by the predicate, b) a main part which does not depend on other ∑ constituents and is in a special agreement with the predicate called subject-verb concord. It also takes initial place in the clause - clause initial position, c) a typically nominal constituent or any constituent that has been substantivized. Ex. And is a conjunction → here "and" functions as S. Types of Ss.
I. Semantically
1. Agentive S - Ex. John broke the window.
2. Instrumental S - Ex. A stone broke the window.
1 and 2 Ss cannot be coordinated - ex. * John and a stone broke the window.
3. Affected S - a) the subject in non-volitional actions - ex. He fell down. B) in the so called medial ∑s. ex. The chicken is cooking. C) in normal passive structures/∑s where affected = patient - ex.
The window was broken by John
a patient S agentive

4. Recipient S - a) with verbs of possession: have, own, possess - ex. Marry has a dog. B) with verbs of non-volitional sense perception: see (but not look at), hear (but not listen to), smell (not always), taste (not always). Usually such ∑s do not have imperative and progressive form in English and do not take adverbial manner - ex. *Quickly she saw the rabbit. C) in passive ∑s with recipient S - ex. The girl was given a book by the boy.

Recipient S |O. pat| C.ag
5. Locative S - The city is clouded.
6. Temporal S - It denotes time - ex. Yesterday was a holiday.
7. Eventive S - It denotes event - ex. The wedding is on Monday.
Morphological realizations of the S
1. A noun-phrase (N-Ph) - the prototypical S constituent - ex. Blood is thicker than water. Here we have simple N-Ph. The girl you were talking to is my sister. Here we have a complex N-Ph.
2. Finite clause - a) "that" clause - ex. That his wife left him doesn't make him unhappy. B) "Wh" clause - ex. What was said above is horseshit.

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