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b) complementarity is a binary opposition: the denial of one member of the opposition implies the assertion of the other: "not male" means "female" c) conversives -they denote one and the same referent as viewed from different points of view-that of the subject and that of the object. The substitution of a conversive does not change the meaning of a sentence if it is combined with appropriate morphological and syntactical changes and appropriate prepositions are selected: ex. "He gave her flowers" - "she received flowers from him". 2) derivational antonyms - the affixes in them serve to deny the quality stated in the stem: ex. known - unknown; appear - disappear; capable - incapable; useful - useless. *Derivational antonyms are contradictory (contradictory notions are mutually exclusive and inconsistent, denying one another). *Absolute A-s are contrary (contrary notions are inconsistent but they are polar members of a gradual oppositions, which may have intermediary elements.
6. Types of changes in the word meaning from a synchronic and diachronic point of view. Linguistic and extra-linguistic factors. (Semant)
History, social structure and human psychology, cause changes in the meaning of the word. In some cases, though quite rare, only one of these factors is the cause for the change. Usually the change is cause by several factors and that's why it is very difficult to determine the main cause. 1) linguistic causes: they are of phonological, grammatical and semantical character. a) in Eng, different words were borrowed at different periods when different phonetic rules operated and one and the same form was moulded in a different way. The result of the synchronical level was two different words (doublet forms): ex. "arc - arch", "to attack - to attach". Unstable spelling in middle Eng also led to the development of different words: ex. "flower - flour". Each form of those doublets was attached to one of the meanings of the mother word so that meaning and form blended. That made it easier to get away from the mother word and start its own existence. b) grammatical reasons - the so called substantivization: ex. substantivization of adjs: "the rich", "the poor", "the wounded". The article "the" signals only that substantivization has become part of the semantics of those items. c) the verb in Eng must always be accompanied by its subject, because of the loss of personal endings. If there is not a doer of the action "it" is put to perform its function; "it" is not used with its own meaning: "it's raining", "it hurts". d) "do" is almost void of meaning when used in literary works for the sake of metre. Ex. "I do love you", "I never did swear so". In case like: Don't come late - "do" lost its original meaning and acquired a purely grammatical function: ex. "I don't know". "Do you know her?" - "Yes, I do". "Do" performs a grammatical function and is void of lexical meaning. It replaces "know her", it becomes very abstract. "You play chess, don't you?". "do" stands for the whole meaning of the disjunctive question. e) "Yes" and "No" can carry the meaning of a whole phrase: ex. "Do you like it?" - "Yes"/"No". f) The conjunctions (provided and providing) are separates words: - on synchronical level they don't have anything in common with the corresponding verbal forms except that they are perfect homonyms with them; - diachronically they are divided from the corresponding past and present participles of the verb "to provide". With the change of their grammatical status there was a change in their meaning. 2) historical causes: with the appearance (development) of new notions there comes the need to name them so a new word is coined or an old word, native or borrowed, acquires a new meaning: ex. In ancient time used to write with a feather, in Latin named "penna". Through French the word entered the Eng language in the form of "pen". Nowadays pens are made of different materials so the referent of the word "pen" is different from the referent of the old word. The only fact that we use "pen" is that it is used for writing, the common feature between the old and the new referent. 3) social factor: this factor works in two ways: specialization (creating terms) and slang and cant. a) specialization - a word acquires additional meanings when used as a technical term: ex. words denoting parts of the body are very frequently used as technical terms: "head", "hand", "finger", "foot". b) slang is a source of enriching standard language. c) cant is the speech of the underworld, it has intentional character - to make the word as unintelligible as possible. There are no hard and fast boundaries between slang and cant. 4) psychological factor: the speaker gives an additional meaning or even changes the meaning of a word by endowing it with an emotional colouring, suiting the state of mind on the mood he is in at the moment of speaking → the context or the intonation suggests the shifting of the meaning. The psychological factor helps the meaning got be either elevated or degraded. The causes of semantic changes are linguistic and extra-linguistic. Linguistic changes are: 1) differentiation between synonyms - due to the constant interdependence of vocabulary units in language and speech. 2) fixed contents - changes resulting from ambiguity in certain contexts. 3) ellipsis.
Ex 1) Differentiation of synonyms is a gradual change observed in the course of language history: ex. "time" and "tide" → they used to be synonyms; then "tide" (periodically shifting waters) "time" (used in general sense). Ex. 2) fixed context - "meat" refers only to flesh food; "meat and drink" (set expression - big pleasure). "sweetmeats" (compound). Ex. 3) ellipsis: a) the qualifying words of a frequent phrase can be omitted: "sale" → "cut-price sale". "to propose" → "to propose marriage". b) the kernel word of the phrase may seem redundant: "minerals" → "mineral waters".
METAPHOR AND METONYMY
I. Metaphor (M) is a figurative expression. The M is a fanciful idea based on a common feature of two entities. The common feature is never mentioned, the hearer must come to it by himself. In almost all cases the common feature is practically the only thing in common between the two referents. The greater the difference between the two referents the more difficult it is to find the common feature. From a linguistic point of view M is a non-literal use of language. All Ms can be transferred into similes. M is the relation of similarity between two objects. The M is an intentional transfer. The transfer is founded on some similarity between the primary referent and the actual referent. The actual referent is the one to which the word is actually applied when transferred. It is worth mentioning that it is mostly nouns that are subjected to M, less so verbs and still less adjs. Classification: nouns: 1) the name of an object stands for another object, a) names of plants especially flowers, are based on the common appearance of the two referents: ex. snowdrop, crowfoot, b) names of parts of an animal body are often used with humorous intent for parts of the human body: beak, bill, paw. c) names of objects are used for parts of the human body. Also with a humorous or derisive connotation: onion (head), trap (mouth). d) the name of a concrete entity may stand for an abstract one: ex This place is hell. f) the name of an abstract entity may stand for another abstract one: ex. Knowledge is light. g) the name of an abstract entity may stand for a concrete one: ex. To be the pride of somebody, to be the glory of he country. 2) the name of an object stands for a person: ex. A lamp post. = a lean, tall person. A poker = a stiff person. 3) names of animals stand for persons: a lion = a brave and fearless person, a viper = wicked and malicious person. 4) proper names of people used as common names. A Don Quixote = a naive idealist. A don Juan = lover. 5) names of nations as common nouns: A Turk = ferocious, wild or unmanageable person. 6) names of places used as common nouns: Mecca = any place one aspires to visit.
Verbs: to hang around, to burst into a laughter, to break a promise.
Synaesthetic M - synaesthesia is an association that connects elements from different sensory spheres, the point of similarity being constituted by their effect on the perceiving subject. It affects mainly adjs and only occasionally nouns. It is a favourite figure especially used in poetry: ex. Warm reception, burning question, a thin excuse, running water, small talk. The more extraordinary the M the stronger its effect on the hearer. After frequent use the effect of any M fades away no matter extraordinary. Little by little it loses its emotional colouring and it ceases to be felt as a stylistic figure. If the M-cal element is lost then the word is considered to be a dead M. Otherwise it is a living M. ex of dead M: daisy, horse-play, hooligan. The M-cal figure of speech, regarded from the point of view of shift of meaning, often leads to polysemy. This often happens with some dead Ms. M-ic use gives rise to new formations. It is the motif for forming by conversion such words as to fish - to seek by indirect means, to dog - to follow closely, pursue, track.
METONYMY (Mt)- it is based on contiguity of two entities. It excludes any similarities between the two entities. The relation between the two entities is external and not inherent Mt. Has no need of creative inspiration which is the basis for the M. with the M. there is a gap purposely left by the speaker which has to be filled in by the hearer through long and often laborious mental activity. With Mt the gap is of entirely different character. It exists in reality. From the purely linguistic point of view. With Mt we have one word beginning to stand for another entity. 1) a classical type of Mt is the synecdoche - there are two types: a) naming an entity after the name of some of its parts: ex. blue stockings = a woman having literary tastes, brass hat = high ranking officers. b) the name of the whole stands for the part: ex. church = congregation, school = the children. 2) Mt of diverse character: a) the name of the animal for its fur: fox, mink, chinchilla, b) the name of the material for the object: ex glass = something made of glass, c) the name of the container for the thing contained: ex. cup = a cup of some contents, The kettle if boiling. d) the name of the place for its inhabitants: Wall Street = USA financial power, The White House = the president. e) the name of the organ for the capability: to have a good ear for, to have an eye for. f) the name of the thing contained for the container: ex. sardine = the can in which it is preserved, g) the name of the instrument for the person who uses it: ex pen = a writer, gun = an artillery man, h) the name of the author for his work: ex A Shakespeare, A Byron. A sub-class of Mt we may have when the name of the inventor stands for the invention: ex. Winchester = a rifle. Another sub-class here is that of the name of a person for an article somehow connected with the latter: ex. cardigan, sandwich, boycott. i) the name of the place where the article was first produced stands for the article itself: ex. china = porcelain. j) the name of the symbol for the symbolized, k) the brand for the article: ex lucky strike, volga, l) the date of the event for the event: ex. the 9-th of September - the socialist revolution in Bg, m) the hour for the train: ex I'm going by the 6.30. Mt, like M, is also a means of word formation: mint and money are actually dead Mts. Both come from the Latin moneta (which had both meanings). Mt is one of the mechanisms which gives rise to polysemy: ex. board - 1) a table used for meals = food served at the table, 2) a table at which a council is held = the persons who meet at a council table.
NARROWING AND WIDENING OF MEANING
I. Widening of meaning: when a semantic area of a word becomes wider we may conclude that it has undergone widening of meaning. By semantic area is to understood the quantity of connotations reflecting extra-linguistic items and situations. Widening of the sematic area may be of two different types: polysemy is one of them, but there is another kind of widening, which is connected with the volume of the concept reflected in the meaning of a word. With polysemy there is a basic meaning reflecting an extra linguistic fact and all the other meanings are connected with the basic one, whereas with widening the basic meaning is changed in terms of volume. With polysemy the different meanings co-exist, while with widening the old range of meaning gives way to the new one: ex. rival is connected with river etymologically. In ancient Rome "rivalis" were neighbours who made use of the water of the same river. "Rivalis" had the meaning "belonging to one river". The word later became a law term and after that acquired the meaning of "one who is in pursuit of the same object as another; one who strives to equal or outdo another in any respect". Thus the word became more abstract beginning to cover an area wider than "two neighbours using one river". *In figurative expressions there is also widening of meaning: ex bad egg, bad hat, to cry for the moon. *Idioms proper are also an example of the same phenomenon: to save face, to care two straws. *Widening of meaning may be carried to an extent where the word becomes so abstract that it loses its meaning. Then desemantization takes place. Words used hyperbolically reach this final stage of widening of meaning: ex. terrifically hungry, frightfully kind. *Words without meaning used to fill the gaps in the flow of speech are also regarded as a widening of meaning, which has been carried to the point of complete desemantization. *With widening of meaning there is always a tendency for the basic meaning to shift from the specific to the general, from the concrete to the abstract.
NARROWING OF MEANING
With NofM a word stands for a given notion. When the word is used in each specific case, its meaning will refer to a specific object or phenomenon under specific circumstances and in this way its meaning will be narrowed to this. The narrowed meaning is fixed in the semantics of the word: ex. when a Bg-an says "I'm going to the seaside this summer" this means to the Black Sea coast. *When abstract nouns become concrete their meaning is narrowed. Ex. He is his mother's hope. *There are instances when the narrowed meaning has ousted the other meanings entirely. Ex. "vegetable" comes from the Latin "vegetabilis" - full of life, animating; now it is restricted to only certain edible plants. *The name of the material of which an article is made is used for the article itself: ex glass = a cup. *A natural device in the NofM of the word is to accompany it by a qualifier - lexico-syntactical device: ex. black art is equivalent to magic, necromancy. The meaning of art is not only restricted by black but the combination with the latter results as if in a new word; first night = the first night of a performance. *The existence of synonyms plays an important role in the narrowed meaning of some words. There is no justification of two words in a language to have exactly the same meaning → it is inevitable for one of them either to be ousted or restricted of meaning. *There are also cases that show that borrowings have restricted the meaning of native words. Ex. the Old Eng "feond" meant "enemy". With the adoption of the word enemy from French, "fiend" was restricted only to god's enemy - the devil. There are two characteristic features of NofM: 1) there is a basic tendency for the abstract to become concrete, 2) there is also a tendency for the generic to stand for the specific.
ELEVATION AND DEGRADATION OF MEANING
The speaker may give additional meaning or even change the meaning of a word by endowing it with an emotional colouring suiting the state of mind or the mood he is in at the moment of speaking. In such cases it is the context or the intonation that suggests the shifting of the meaning. The psychological factor helps the meaning to be either elevated or degraded. Judging by the moral standards of a given society the speaker expresses his own attitude using a given word by charging it with a connotation of values which are not proper to it. 1) elevation of meaning: when a word is used to stand for higher values than it usually expresses, if at all. The "elevated" meaning, although secondary, may gradually gain the upper hand and at a given historical period may become basic: ex. right - the antonym of left in time acquired the opposite of false; nice - of Latin origin - it meant a person who did not know, an ignorant person. Today there is a tendency for this word to be desemantized: a nice book/day/walk/girl/word. Queen in old Eng meant woman. 2) degradation of meaning: with dofm a word is used to express a base moral value not inherent in its original meaning. *Names of animals have no emotional colouring. When applied to human beings they acquire a derogatory connotation: ex. she is a viper. But out of that context the word viper remains non-emotional. She is a pussy-cat (cunt). *The use of names of different nations with degraded meaning: ex. Dutch comfort, Dutch carriage, Dutch feast. *Proper names with abusive connotation: ex. Jim Crow - and abusive name for a Negro in the USA. *Words expressing a positive value from frequent usage may acquire just the reverse meaning: ex. common person - mean, base. *A word with a positive meaning may be used to express just the opposite for the sake of contrast: ex. that precious husband of yours. *Sometimes derivatives acquire a negative connotation from the point of view of value: ex. he works hard - he hardly works. Mood = disposition → moody = bad disposition.
OTHER TYPES OF SEMANTIC CHANGE
1) Hyperbola - is an exaggerated statement not meant to be understood literally but expressing an intensely emotional attitude of the speaker to what he is speaking about. Ex. it's a nightmare, you are the world for me. The poetic hyperbola creates image and in the linguistic hyperbola the denotative meaning quickly fades out and the corresponding exaggerated words serve only as general signs of emotion without specifying the emotion itself. 2) litotes - (understatement) - it expresses the affirmative by the negation of its contrary: not bad → good. Some understatements do not contain negation: rather decent. The litotes as a rule does not create permanent change in the semantic structure of the word concerned. 3) irony - expresses one's meaning by words of opposite meaning for the purpose of ridicule: a nice/pretty mess. 4) taboo and euphemism: created by social and psychological factors. Taboo are rough, unpleasant expressions or words. Euphemism is the substitution of words of mild or vague connotation for rough and unpleasant expressions. *If a word is struck by a taboo then it must be replaced by a harmless alternative. The more backward the community the more words are taboo. a) words of animals were taboo with many people. That was the result of a superstitious belief that if one pronounces the name of an animal it would get angry and cause mischief. b) during the Puritanism in Eng the words devil and god were absolutely taboo. c) parts of the body were also tabooed: ex. hand - it was believed to be separate from the body and omnipotent. d) moral principles are also factors for tabooing certain words connected with sex and physiology. *Language has two means of replacing tabooed words: 1) modification - changing one or several sounds in the tabooed word: ex. god and lord and the various oaths connected with them: for goodness sake, goodness gracious; god → gad, gog, gom, gosse, golly; lord → lam, lawks, losh. 2) substitution - with a harmless word or expression - borrowed from another dialect or language: ex. sweat → perspiration, madman → maniac. *The figurative substitute of a tabooed word is called euphemisms: it is a linguistic veil on everything sacred, dangerous, unpleasant or indecent: ex devil → Old Harry, scratch, the old gentleman; hell → the other place, the hot place, very uncomfortable.

7. Word formation (Semant)
Word formation (WF) is a means of forming new words by using the linguistic building material that is at hand in a given language. In Eng we distinguish between several ways of WF: derivation (affixation), composition, contraction, blending and conversion. A close look at the means of wf during the various periods of the history of the Eng language will reveal that different means of wf were preferred at different times. In Moder Eng popular means of wf have been conversion and phraseology while in Old and Middle Eng - affixation and composition.
Affixation - in Eng the affixes are of native as well as of foreign origin. The affixes as such are part of the backbone of the language. Those of foreign origin in Eng were not borrowed as word formatives. It is the words, of which the affixes are a part, that are borrowed. When many foreign words with the same affix become well established in the language, the affix begins to be felt as a word formative: ex. the suffix for abstract nouns -cy (French - cie, from Latin - tia) word to be found in may French and Latin words borrowed in Eng at one and the same time: prophecy, primacy, policy etc. The Eng language adopted this model of wf from the XVI century onwards purely Eng forms started to appear: secrecy, permanency, dependency etc. Borrowings with the suffix - ic (Latin -icus, French -ique), lunatic, fantastic, pathetic. Purely Eng formations: atomic, optimistic, antagonistic. No matter whether the roots are foreign or native the new words formed by derivation and using the borrowed suffixes are Egn formations, which shows that the suffix is already felt as a building material of the Eng language. The great variety of abstract notions which could not be satisfied by the suffixes existing in the language: -dom, -hood, -ness, conditioned the easy adopting of the suffixes: -ism (the notion of school, a system of views), -cy (the notion of quality connected with the person or object expressed in the noun root), -ation (the notion of process). The function of prefixes in Eng is purely semantical. They are used to give a certain nuance to the meaning of the word. So that the same prefix may be used as a formative of different parts of speech: mishap - a noun; misunderstand - verb. Suffixes perform a grammatical function besides the semantical one → they differ from the different parts of speech. During the Old Eng period the prefixes be-, bi-, were very productive. Today they are completely obsolete except for the new words in which they exist as archaisms. In many such words they have lost their status as morphemes: because, to become, before, to begin, behind etc. In a few other words they are still felt as prefixes: to becloud, bedarken, bedazzle, to be fit etc. The prefix "with" is no longer productive but is still felt as a prefix in words like: withdraw, to withstand, to withhold etc. Some Old Eng prefixes still productive in Modern Eng are: fore-, out-, over-, un-, up-, under-, mis-. Fore- in Old and Middle Eng it was a prefix to verbs adding the connotation of "before": foresee, foretell, foreshadow, foretaste. Later this prefix was ousted by the Latin "pre" meaning "before", "in front", "in advance": precede, predict. Out- it's always been a productive prefix: outline, outgrow, outbreak, outburst, outcome. Over- overdo, overburden, overcome, overall, overestimate. Un- 1) primitive Germanic, Indoeuropean (= not) 2) originally identical with "and" - expressing reversal or deprivation. One of the most productive prefixes: unattached, unaware, unforgiven, unable. Under- understand, underground, undertone, undergo. Up- upright, uprise, upbringing. Mis- with the meaning of amiss wrongly: misfortune, misgive, mislead. In modern Eng there is no prefix with grammatical function. Suffixes, however, have a double role to perform - both adding something to the meaning of the word and bearing a grammatical function. That's why different grammatical categories have different suffixes. However there are suffixes performing only grammatical functions. ex.. ed- p.t. and p.p. of weak verbs. -en-p.p. of strong verbs and -ing-present participle. Verb suffixes: "-l": nestle, paddle, crumble, stumble etc. "-er": pitter, patter, twitter, chatter etc. noun suffixes: "-er"(profession, location): worker, singer, dancer, foreigner, villager etc. "-ster"(degrading nuance): gamester, gangster, spinster etc. "-ness": goodness, bitterness, sweetness etc. -dom, - ship, -hood, -th: strength etc. adjectival suffixes: -y, ful, less, -ish, adverbial suffixes: -ly-manly, masterly etc. -ward(s). Thoroughly naturalized affixes, so productive that they have replaced affixes with native origin: -dis, -en, -re, -able, -ation, -ism.

Composition. C. is a means of forming new words which causes two or more roots to be merged into one, whose meaning might be the sum total or it might be idiomatic. The components of a compound word can't have a complete grammatical form of their own, i.e. they can't be words in themselves. As far as the meaning is concerned it differs from case to case- from the most non-idiomatic(light-blue, waterfall) to the idiomatic(butterfly, rainbow). Types of compounds acc. to their gram-al structure: 1. With a specific morpheme as a link. a) Two roots linked by -o- gasometre, speedometre. b) two roots linked by -s- statesman, tradesman, foolscap etc. Compounds without any morpheme as a link. a) compound adjectives formed of a noun root + adj. root: ice-cold, milk-white, home-sick. b) numeral root + noun root: five-year, eight-hour, five-minutes. c) two adj-al roots: dark-brown, pinkish-red, light-blue. d) noun, adj or adv-al root + the suffixes -ed, -en: gray-haired, heart-broken. e) compound verbs formed of a noun root + verb root: backbite, handpeck, backwasg. f) compound nouns: adj-al root + a noun root: blackberry, blacksmith, goldsmith. g) compound nouns: noun root + noun root: backbone, bagpipe, rainbow. 3)compound words formed by "inner syntax", the structure of the words reminds the structure of a sentence or a phrase - this type is very frequently met: lily-of-the-valley, forget-me-not 4) compound words which are easily dissolved and become phrases again: stone wall, gold watch, speech sound.
The components of a compound words are root morphemes. Their grammatical nature, if any, is irrelevant and has no effect on the grammatical nature of the compound as a whole. The last root in the compound bears the morphological markers of the whole word. The relations in a compound are not of grammatical character. They are of a semantic character. Each type of compound shares one and the same deep structure with other linguistic units which are phrases or even ∑s. Every compound has at least one synonym: tradesman - a man who trades, ice-cold - cold as ice, fire-proof - proof against fire.
Contraction - it is shortening of a word by omitting some of its elements. The shortened form may either preserve the old meaning or acquire a new one. There are three types of contraction: 1) Aphaeresis: when the first sound or syllable is dropped. a) ex. French: avanguard / espace / aventurer / espier - Eng: vanguard / space / venture / spy. b) in colloquial speech words are often clipped for the sake of brevity: ex. periwig → wig, caravan → van, telephone → phone. c) in rapid speech there is always possibility for the initial syllable to be dropped, especially if it is not stressed - umbrella → brolly, stomach → tummy. d) proper names are usually shortened - Theodora → Dora, Elisabeth → Beth. 2) Syncope: when a sound or a syllable is dropped out in the middle of a word: a) French borrowings have undergone syncopation - capitain → captain, cheminee → chimney, b) in colloquial speech some abbreviations are made for the sake of speed - shan't, can't, won't, shouldn't. c) proper names are often syncopated - Benedict → Bennet 3) Apocepe - when a final sound or syllable is dropped out. a) in different kinds of slang and jargon there are clipped forms, especially student's jargon - Professor → prof, laboratory → lab, gymnastics → gym, mathematics → maths, b) proper names often undergo apocope - Alexander → Alex, Edward → Ed, Ronald → Ron, Victor → Vic. *In written Eng there are words that have an abbreviated spelling but take full pronunciation. They can be considered orthographical clippings: Doctor → Dr., for example → e.g., note well → N.B.
N.B. Only nouns are subjected to contraction. *in many cases the contracted forms have a special stylistic colouring: contracted personal names → connotation of endearment, contractions in jargon → connotation of intimacy.
Blending is closely related to contraction. With blending two words are blended into one and in the process sounds from each word are dropped out. a) in modern Eng there are words that are the result of blending but are not felt as such: gossip = god + sib (Old Eng = kinship), goodbye = god be with you. b) a favourite way of forming new words, especially in American Eng, is blending pairs of synonyms: flurry (flaw + hurry), blunt (blind + stunned), smog (smoke + fog), flush (flash + blush) slide (slip + glide), c) acrostic words are the result of the blending of the initial letters or initials syllables of a compound name. This type of blending is typical for neologisms reflecting notions in socialists society: kolkhoz (kolektivnoe khozjaistvo). During the war many acrostic words cropped up for the names of institutions of military bodies: SCAP (Supreme Command of Allied Powers), RAAF (Royal Auxiliary Air Force). Names of organizations - BBC - the British Broadcasting Corporation, MP - Member of Parliament. *In contemporary Eng there is a tendency to use the initial letters of a personal name for the name itself: W.O.Grant.
Conversion - it is becoming one of the most productive means of wf in contemporary Eng. It applies especially to the category of the verb and noun, less so to adjs and far lesser to other parts of speech. Phrases which have acquired the status of a word (functioning like a word) can also take part in conversion. Even set phrases can be converted: stove-polish, cold-shower. Conversion is wf in which the paradigm is the word formative element. The two words related by this type of wf differ in terms of paradigm on the morphological level. Conversion excludes all kinds of affixes playing the role of wf with the exception of the paradigmatic marker. Another typical feature of conversion is that words belonging to one and the same class, cannot be coined by this means of wf. So it is not possible for a verb to form another verb, or a noun another noun. The basic forms of two words related by conversion are homonyms. Ex. To run → n. run (conversion). 1) the basic forms of both verb and noun are homonyms. 2) they differ in their paradigms and distributional nature on syntactical level. 3) there is a relation between the lexical meaning of the two words. During the Middle Eng period conversion was very productive. Many pairs of words were created and established in the language: ex. stream (v) - stream (n), rumour (n) - rumour (v), yellow (adj) - yellow (v).
*Verbs like to suffer, to live, to eat, to hear, to come, to see etc cannot form nouns by conversion due perhaps to their semantic structure - they express actions of long duration or mental and physical perception. They are durative verbs. Verbs like to ache, to drink, to attack, to go, to look etc form the respective nouns because they express either an action of starting or one that can be divided into separate moments. Words with lexical grammatical suffixes that clearly show their grammatical category can hardly be converted: nouns in -tion, ex. creation, liquidation. Types of pairs related by conversion: 1) "genetic pairs" (from Old End): anger (n) / mind (n) / name (n) / love (n) - anger (v) / mind (v) / name (v) / love (v). 2) borrowings (mainly from French): accord (n) / concern (n) / distress (n) - accord (v) / concern (v) / distress (v). 3) genuine conversion: a) simple stems: "book" (n,v), "cook" (n,v), "try" (n,v), "nail" (n,v). b) derivative stems: "condition" (n,v), "requisition" (n,v). c) compound stems: "blackmail", "windowshop". d) phrases: "drawback" (phr. n.), "handcuff" (phr. v.). e) back formation: "hitch-hike" (v,n). f) blendings: "paratroop" (v,n), onomatopoeia: blah-blah (n,v), pooh-pooh (n,v).
*There are two main types of nouns coined by conversion: 1) nouns which name a single action of whole process: ex. "go", "say", "sneeze", "cough" etc. 2) nouns which denominate the action in its integrity: start, stand, roll, leap.
*Groups of verbs resulting from conversion: a) a process whose connection with the nouns is as if the noun were the instrument of the action: to drum, to nose, to pipe. b) a process expressing the business of a person denominated by the noun - to cook, to boss, to nurse. c) a process expressing an action like the noun: to shower, to thunder, to nail. d) a process expressing certain specific connection with the noun: to milk (the billy goat), to bottle. e) a process connected with the noun in meaning but acquiring different connotations depending on the extra-linguistic circumstances: to water.

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8. Loan words in modern English (Semant) (Etymological sources)
Words of Indo-European and Germanic origin
A loan word is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonetic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the Eng language. In order to trace the origin of a word we have to undertake an etymological investigation. This is quite a difficult task because units of speech very remote from each other in sound as well as in lexical meaning may be etymologically identical. If we know when a word first appeared in a language we'll be sure of the phonetical developments of the period and by the form of the word we'll judge whether it had been influenced by these developments or not. The consonant shift with the Germanic languages is quite reliable: ex. by it we may judge that "full" is a very old word and existed in Eng before the consonant shift since it was affected by it. Indo-European "p" turned into "f" in Germanic. (painos) → (full). A)*Since Eng belongs to the Germanic branch of the Indo-European group of languages it is obvious that the oldest words in Eng are of Indo-European origin. It may be said that they constitute the very heart of the language. We differentiate several semantic groups: a) words expressing family relations - brother, mother, father, motherfucker, fatherfucker. b) names of parts of the human body - foot, knee, eye, ear, nose, dick, vagina, cunt. c) names of elements and celestial bodies - water, wind, moon, sun, star, d) names of tree, birds, animas - birch, tree, cow, wolf, goose, e) words expressing basic actions - to come, to know, to lie, to sit, to ejaculate, to suck (dicks preferably, in rare cases - balls). f) words expressing qualities - red, white, quick, g) numerals - one, two, three, hundred, B) * Words of Germanic origin: 1) nouns: ankle, bone, cloth, ground, ice, iron, life, sea, ship, shoe, 2) adjs: dead, dear, green, gray, sick, sorry, 3) verbs: to burn, to draw, to drink, to find, to go, to forgive, to tell, to sing, to fuck, to lick, to have (sex all the time and not only) 4) pronouns: all (the bitches), each, he, self, such, 5) advs: again (OHHH darling, cum again, pretty, pretty please!!!), forward, near, 6) prepositions: after (sex), at, by, over (her), under (him), up, 7) adverbs: here, there (here, there suck it everywhere, ако няма рима удари ма!).
Words from French and other languages
I. After the Norman Conquest in1066 there was an influx (вливане) of French words in the Eng language. 1) nouns: advice, age, autumn, beauty, car, cattle, change, choice, colour, courage, creature, enemy, fruit, family, flower, honour, pleasure (YEAHH), question. 2) adjs: brave, common, close, foreign, general, important, large, poor, opposite, 3) verbs: agree, appear, catch (her in the rye, and then you fuck her....), cover, decide, dress (undress her), enter, hurt, repeat, say, try, wait, refuse.
* There are a few words in the basic words stock of contemporary Eng of various other sources. They have entered the basic words stock because they are names of notions which in the course of time have become basic. Some belong to languages with which Eng does not have much in common: II. Latin borrowings: 1) nouns: cheese, cook, cup, dish, kitchen, mill, pepper, plant, port, wall, wine 2) adjs: correct, equal, perfect, quiet, 3) verbs: to add, to spend (the night with her), to turn, III. Scandinavian borrowings: 1) nouns: bag, egg, fellow, harbour, law, leg, skirt (lift it up yeah), sky, wing, 2) verbs: to call, to crawl (for my flesh to crawl along and for the gander to bark at me), to give, to take, to want, to wank, 3) adjs: ill, low, wrong, ugly, odd, 4) prepositions: till, IV. Others: church (Greek), silk, tea (Chinese), potato, tomato, tobacco (Spanish).

8. Loan words in modern English (Semant)
A loan word is a word taken over from another language and modified in phonetic shape, spelling, paradigm or meaning according to the standards of the Eng language. There are also translation loans (word and expressions formed from the material already existing in the British language but according to patterns taken from another language, by way of literal morpheme-to-morpheme translation) and semantic loans (word which develop a new meaning due to the influence of a related word in another language) - ex pioneer. *The Eng language system absorbed and remodeled the vast majority of loan words according to its own standards → it is sometimes difficult to tell whether a word is borrowed or native. *Many loan words, inspite of the changes they have undergone, retain some peculiarities in pronunciation, spelling or morphology: 1) the initial sounds [v], [дж], [ж] are a sign that the word is not native: vacuum, jewel, genre. 2) combinations as ph, kh, eau in the root indicate the foreign origin of the word: philology, beau. 3) "x" is pronounced [ks] and [gz] in native words and words of Latin origin, and [z] in words coming from Greek: six, exist, xylophone. 4) the combination ch is pronounced [ч] in native words and early borrowings: child, chair; [ш] in late French borrowings: machine, parachute and [k] in words of Greek origin: epoch, chemist. 5) prefixes which mark certain words as foreign - learned: ab-, ad-, con-, dis-, ex-, per-, pro-, re-. *The term assimilation of loan words denotes a partial or total confirmation to the phonetical, graphical, and morphological standards of the receiving language and its semantic system. Oral borrowings due to personal contracts are assimilated more completely and more rapidly than literary borrowings. *A classification of loan words according to the degree of assimilation: 1) completely assimilated loan words: they follow all morphological, phonetical and orthographical standards. They may occur as dominant words in synonimic groups. They take an active part in word formation: ex. the first layer of Latin borrowings: cheese, wall etc. Scandinavian loans: husband, fellow, gate. French loans: table, chair, face, finish. *A loan word never brings into the receiving language the whole of its semantic structure if it is polisemantic in the original language. *The borrowing of a new word leads as a rule to semantic changes in words already existing in the language. 2) partly assimilated loan words: a) loan words not assimilated semantically because they denote objects and notions peculiar to the country from which they come: sombrero, toreador, b) loan words not assimilated grammatically: ex. nouns borrowed from Latin or Greek: crisis-crises, phenomenon-phenomena, c) loan words not completely assimilated phonetically - some of them keep the accent on the final syllable: ex. machine, cartoon, police. - some of them contain sounds or combinations of sounds that are not standard for the Eng language and do not occur in native words: ex. bourgeois, sabotage, memoir, d) loan words not completely assimilated graphically: ex. French borrowings in which the final consonant is not pronounced: ex. bouquet, ballet, buffet, 3) unassimilated loan words (barbarisms) - they are used by Eng people in conversation or in writing but not assimilated in any way, and for which there are corresponding Eng equivalents; ex. Italian: addio, ciao. *Words of identical origin that occur in several language as a result of simultaneous or successive borrowings from one ultimate source are called international words: antennae, antibiotic, atomic.

10. Sequence of tenses (Morph)
The general principle is that in English the tenses of the subordinate clauses must correspond with that of the main clause if it is in the past. The most frequent and obvious applications of this rule is in the case of indirect speech where the tenses actually used by the speaker are shifted back a degree in time to conform with the past tense of the main clause. In the shifted tenses the past perfect stands for the past simple, present perfect and past perf. itself which cannot be shifted back any further. He said: "I have not seen her today" = He said that he had not seen her today. This shifting of the tense is used to dissociate the speaker from the idea he is reporting and to represent this idea as subjective. This can be seen from several facts: a) the sequence of tenses is not used in connection with subjunctive mood forms. He suggested that she leave immediately.
b) the S. of T. is frequently discarded when the statement is a general truth from which the speaker does not want to dissociate himself. The ancients thought that the sun moved round the earth, they didn't know that it is the earth that moves round the sun.
c) when it is not the case of a general truth that always holds good, but nearly of a fact that is still true when the statement is repeated, the S. of T. is obligatory in the case of Pr. T. even though it may lead to apparent illogicality. You always said that he was dead but here he is. In such cases the back shifted tense comes close to the past of reality.
d) The use of the past in connection with the future in the main clause to express an action that is happening now but by the time of the future action will be already past. Tell her I died blessing her. This is a device which actually represents the past tense that will be used in direct speech in the future.
Backshiftiing of the past simple or the present perfect to the past perfect is not so essential. There seem to be several tendencies operating against it, and it is difficult to formulate definite rules, but two points seem fairly clear:

- Backshifting is necessary when we wish to stress the subjective nature of a statement. He said she was very beautiful.



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