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- Backshifting is necessary as a rule when we are speaking of dynamic situations, less so when we are speaking of states and circumstances. Backshifting is thus generally avoided in subordinate temporal clauses. He said: "I hurt myself while I was bathing." = He said that he had hurt himself.In such cases we get a rather anomalous use of the past perfect referring to a situation posterior to the coming one. The same occurs with sentences that give the circumstance under which actions take place. He said he was at the theatre last night and had waved to us but we had taken no notice. The past subjunctive 'were' does not undergo back shifting. The present perf. in contrast with the pr. simple does not have to be shifted if it expresses smth. that is still true at the moment of speaking. John told me he has been promised a job with Smithsons. Backshifting is not always dependent on a past tense form actually expressed in a governing clause; often the main clause may be understood. When were you going to Bristol? = When did you were going to B. The question of the S. of T. arises chiefly with object clauses giving the contents of a thought or speech, but not as a rule with most other types of subordinate clauses where the question of subjective colouring does not arise. With most subordinate clauses there is a logical relation b/n the temporal plain of the main clause and that of the subordinate clause. I didn't come to the party because had a headache. In simple subordination the logic of the circumstances will inevitably bring about correspondence between the tenses. He was already there when I arrived. In more complex degree of subordination where indirect speech is also involved the S. of T. -is generally the rule. "I will write to you when I'm in the humour." = I promised to write to you when I was in the humour." Shifting of the Future - the backshifting of a future form represents a special situation, since it often entails a shift of person too and in this way the question of choice is b/n will and shall. The tendency is to use the past tense form of the same auxiliary as in direct speech. "I will consider what I shall demand." = He promised he would consider what he should demand. When the change is from 2 or 3 person to 1 person, the aux. is usually altered. She hoped I should be a good teacher. Backshifting of modal verbs: must/ought to have no corresponding past forms and remain unshifted. She said she must be back by ten. When conclusion is implied must is combined with perfect infinitives. He said there must have been at least five of them.If had to occurs in the direct speech, the indirect may take the phrase had had to or remain unchanged. Conditional sentences expressing unreal conditions do not usually change the verb phrase. He said he would do it if I allowed him. Commands and exclamations in reported speech: commands are indicated by the infinitive - I told them to be quiet.; exclamations - How brave you are. = ..told him how brave he was. Questions in reported speech - all questions in reported speech are indirect questions normally introduced by the verb ask. Do you know her? = She asked me if I knew her. Questions containing a pro-predicate are also reported with ask. I don't know the way, do you? = He said he didn't know the way and asked her if she did. Answers containing only yes or no may be reported by a pro-predicate. "Can you swim", he said. - "No" = He asked me if I could swim and I said I couldn't.
12. Aspect (Morph)
I. Definition - the category of A. in English is based on two functional oppositions: 1) b/n progressive and non-prog. forms 2) b/n perfect and non-perf. forms
II. Opposition 1) reflects the eternal constituency under verbal situation: a) progressive verb forms represent the situation as incomplete (a process in progress) She is singing now. b) activity performed repeatedly over a period of time. He is typing his own letters these days. c) the progressive may underline the temporary nature of the situation. He is living in Turnovo now. d) the progressive tend to characterize the time rather than the agent. In the 17th century Shakespeare was still living. e) the progressive may function in contrast with the perfect. A sun that had set/was setting. f) progressive aspect forms sometimes have emotional colouring. You are always making poor excuses. g) the progressive may be used for stylistic purposes: to make a question or request more polite. When will you be starting.
The non-progressive form usually denotes completion in the past. They lived in Paris for 10 years. The non-prog. form in the past tense may also be used to denote habitually repeated situations. He went to the seaside each summer. The pr. non-prog. form may be used with the following meaning: a) habitually repeated situations - He writes for the newspapers. b) permanent feature of the subject - She speaks Spanish fluently. c) activities coinciding with the present moment such as sports commentaries, demonstrations, stage directions, cases in which the words themselves form part of the activity they report. I declare the meeting closed. d) in conditional clauses denoting real conditions with non-past time reference. I might tell him if he comes. e) in temporal clauses after the conjunctions: when, before, after. I was reading when he arrived.
III. Perfect - non-perfect: This is an opposition of quite different nature. Perfect forms locate the situation reported prior to the moment of speaking or some fixed moment in the past or future. The perfect form is therefore used to connect an action that has taken place in the past with some fixed moment of time be it present, past or future. This can be done either by expressing the result of the action as it affects the fixed moment of time or by regarding the time of the action as part of a period stretching up to the fixed moment. Perfect forms can express the following meanings: a) result: when we are thinking not so much of what actually happened at a given moment of time as of its effect on the present state of affairs we employ the present perfect form. I have lost my watch would you please tell me the time. ↔ I lost my watch out hiking last Sunday. Resultant actions will be expressed without any time indication, because the time of the situation is not important, only its result. When the important point is who performs the action the non-perfect form should be used. Who broke the window? When the speaker is not referring to one definite occurrence but to smth. that may have been done by various people at different times the perfect form should be used. Who has read 'Great Expectations'? b) Persistent situation: the pr.perf. may be used either to express an action covering a period of time up to the present moment or repeated momentary action performed at some point during such a period. Typical time indications demanding the perf. form in such cases will be: for two days, for several minutes, these two hours, this morning. I have seen her twice today.
Up till now, not yet, ever since, since then - all these time indications include in themselves the idea of the present moment. I've been away most of this year. Time indications referring to a definite point or period of time in the past will demand non-perf. form. I was born in 1979. Some adverbs of time however are polysemantic and it is only when they refer to a definite moment of time that they exclude the use of the perfect.
Then - (at that time) this adverb demands the past simple form. When it means accordingly it may take the perfect. Then you actually have seen him do that.
Once - (at a certain time) with this meaning it requires the past simple form of the verb. He once lived in Sofia for 2 years. When once means a single time it requires the use of the perfect form. I have seen him only once.
Before - (before then) requires the past simple. ..before he arrived.
Before now - in this sense it requires the pr.perf. I have never seen him before. Since - as an adverb it means from that time till now and contrast with after fro that time but not up to the present. Since the invention of gun powder, wars have become more cruel. ↔ He became more sober after his marriage. As a conjunction since means from the time when smth. happened. The main clause in such cases takes the perfect, but the subordinate clause after since will be in past simple. Much has happened since I last wrote to you.
With verbs of intellectual state in the main clause the pr. simple may be used instead of the pr.perf., in the subordinate clause we should use the perfect. I feel easier in my mind since I have spoken to him.
c) experience - when the period of time over which a situation takes place is represented as an indefinite period stretching up to the present moment, we get a structural type that may be similar outwardly with the result of the perfect, the difference being that in the context even the result is of no great importance. All that matters is that the action has been performed at some time or other. Have you ever Chinese food? This type of meaning is frequently confirmed with the use of adverbs such as: ever, never, always, lately, recently.
d) the perfect of recent past - in contrast to the other uses, the perfect of recent past can be contrasted with past simple suggesting infrequent repetitions. He rarely remarked on what he read, but I have seen him sit and think of it. The past perf. form may occur as the result of backshifting in reported speech.
IV. used to + inf. and would + inf. - these two types of phrases can be used to denote habitual activities in the past. Used to may be employed in sentences with verbs of state with non-personal subject. There used to be a monument in the middle of the square.
The implication is that the situation does not take place any more. When used to is combined with dynamic verbs the gram. meaning is that of repetition. They used to get up early in the morning and swim in the sea. Would can only be used with dynamic verbs. This phrase implies repetition in particular circumstances.

10. Tense (Morph)
Tense is a gram. category of the finite verb forms in the indicative mood. Tense locates verbal situations in time. Time is a property of reality and is independent of human ???. Time is reflected by man through his perceptions and intellect and finds its expression in language. Time is appraised by the individual in reference to the moment of his or her immediate perception of the extralinguistic reality. The moment of immediate perception (present moment) is continually shifting in time. The linguistic content of the present moment is 'the moment of speaking'. 'The moment of speaking' serves as the demarcation line b/n the past and the future. The linguistic expressions of time, according as they refer or do not refer to the denoted situations, directly or indirectly, to the moment of speaking are divided into absolute expressions of time (present oriented) pr relative expressions of time (oriented relatively to some other point or period of time which is identifiable in the larger context). Time denotation may be detailed (absolute names of time - now, in the past, very soon, yesterday; factual - at the epoch of Napoleon, during the time of WW1; relative - correlating 2 or more events - at one and the same time with, before that). Of all the temporal meanings conveyed by such detailing lexical denotation of time, the finite verb generalizes in its categorial forms only the most abstract significations taking them as characteristics of the reflective situation. It is the category of T. that forms the necessary background for the adverbial contextual time denotation in an utterance.
In modern English the cat. Of T. can be said to operate in 2 correlated stages. At the first stage, the situation receives an absolute time characteristics by means of opposing the past tense form to the present. The marked member of this opposition is the past form. At the second stage, the situation receives a elative time characteristics by means of opposing the forms of the future to forms of no future marking. Thus we have future and future in the past.
Present simple form. In all the uses of the pr. s. form, there is a basic association with the moment of speaking. 1. Usage (unrestricted use) - this use is found with verbs of state. It places no limitation on the extension of the state into past and future time. War solves no problems. Limits to the duration of the state may be implied by an adverbial modifier which indicates a contrast of the present with some other period. War no longer solves any problems. The present simple is suitable in the expression of general truth and so is found in scientific statement "for all time". Two and three makes five. 2. Instantaneous use - the i. use of the present simple occurs with verbs of non-state. This form denotes an event or an action simultaneous with the moment of speaking. It normally occurs in certain easily definable contexts: a) commentaries; b) demonstrations (TV shows). In most of these case the event or action probably doesn't take place exactly at the instant when it is mentioned, it's subjective rather than objective simultaneity that is conveyed. c) in exclamations - Up we go! d) in stage directions - The specter vanishes. e) the situation and the act of speaking are identical - I accept your offer. This usage is more characteristic of ceremonial contexts - ship launching. 3. Habitual use - the h. use of the pr. s. form is confined to verbs of non-state. The habitual present represents a series of situations. He who hesitates is lost. To emphasise the element of repetition in such sentences one might paraphrase them. Every time one hesitates is lost. Sometimes a plural object helps to single out the habitual meaning. He scores a goal. (instantaneous) ↔ He scores goals. (habitual) On other occasions, an adverbial expression of frequency reinforces the notion of repetition. He cycles to work twice a week. When the verb permits both instantaneous and habitual interpretations, some other linguistic indication of iteration should be supplied. 4. Simple present referring to the future. The simple pr. may refer to future time exclusive of the present. I start work next week. 5. Simple present referring to the past. This use is traditionally known by the term 'historic present'. In this case past happenings are portrayed or imagined as if they were going on at the moment of speaking. The present tense form is accompanied by an adverbial modifier indicating past time. The present tense form is used with past time reference in two diff. situations: a) as highly-coloured popular style of oral narrative; b) to narrate fictional events
A diff. kind of historic present is formed with verbs of communication. John tells me you are getting married. The present simple may be used to cover information which in strict historical terms belongs to the past (literary criticism).
Free variation b/n past and present simple forms occurs in cross-references from one part of the book to another. The problem was/is discussed in chapter II above.
Simple past form. there are two elements of meaning involved in the commonest of past tense. One basic component of meaning is: 'the situation takes place before the present moment'. This means that the present moment is excluded. He lived in Italy for 10 years.
Another component of meaning is: 'the speaker has a definite time in mind'. This specific time in the past is characteristically by an adverbial expression accompanying the P.T.F. of the verb. Once this was a beautiful spot. With the P.T.F. a difference b/n state and non-state is less significant than it is with the present tense form. The past simple form applies only to completed situations. There is nothing in the past corresponding to an indefinitely extensive present state. Even whole eras of civilization may appear as complete indivisible happenings. For the past simple form there is no clear cut contrast b/n instantaneous and unrestrictive uses of the present. There is, however, a distinction to be drawn b/n the so-called unitary past and the habitual past describing a repeated situation. In those days he enjoyed a game of tennis. There is also a contrast b/n past situations happening simultaneously and past situations happening in sequence. He enjoyed and admired the sonnets of Shakespeare. ↔ He addressed and sealed the envelope. The first sentence doesn't alter its meaning if the order of verbs is reversed, but an alteration of the order of verbs in the second sentence suggests an alteration in the order in which the situations took place.
Other temporal relations b/n two consecutive P.T.F. are possible if overtly signaled by a conjunction or an adverbial expression or if made clear by our knowledge of historical precedence. The Portuguese lived on the fringes of Mediterranean civilization; the F. had the advantage of being in its midst.
The past tense is used in syntactically dependant clauses to express hypothetical meaning. It's time we had a holiday. Two extensions of the normal past meaning: 1) the past tense is the natural form of the verb to employ in narrative. Whether the situations narrated are true historical events or the fictional events of a novel. There has grown up a convention of using the past for narrative even when the events portrayed are supposed to take place in the future as science fiction. In the year 2121 the interplanetary transit vehicle X. made a routine journey to the moon with 30 people on board. 2) The second special development of the normal past meaning is the use of the past simple in some contexts of everyday conversations refer to the present feelings or thoughts of the people talking. Did you want me? - Yes, I hoped you would give me a hand with the painting. The subject of this exchange would probably be the present wishes of the second speaker. The present and past are interchangeable in this context, but there is quite an important difference in tone. The effect of the past tense form is to make the request indirect, thus more polite. The speaker is quite prepared to change his own attitude in the light of the attitude of the listener. The use of the present tense form in this situation would seem rather demanding - if it would make a request more difficult to refuse without impoliteness. The past tense form may be used to point a contrast with an unspoken present alternative. I thought you were leaving. (..but now I see you are not.)
Imaginary use of the Present Simple Form. The S.Pr.F. may be used with reference not to real time but to imaginary present time (fictional use). Technically, a distinction may be made b/n the historic use of the present and its fictional use. It is customary for novelists to use the past tense to describe imaginary situations. The employment of simple present strikes one as a deviation from normal practice. Some writers use the present in imitation of the popular present tense form of spoken narrative. Mr. T. takes out his papers, asks permission to place them on the golden table at my lady's elbow, puts on his spectacles and starts reading by the light of the shaded lamp. The succession of the Pr.T.F. so used tends to represent a sequence of events. In some other narrative contexts the Pr.T.F. is conventional (in stage directions). Similarly, installments of serial stories (shown on the radio, TV or periodicals) usually begin with recapitulation of previous installments in the present tense. The story so far: J. B. visits his aunt... Another special use of the present simple is that of the travelogue itinerary. To reach the lake, we make our way up to the source of the river, then...

16. Modal Verbs (Morph)
I. Modality - it is a functional semantic category which expresses the speaker's view on the relation b/n the activity reported in the sentence and reality. Modality can be expressed in the realm of the sentence in different ways: 1) mood - indicative (I speak English.);
imperative (Speak English!); subjunctive (God save the Queen!)
2) modal adverbs - Perhaps, it's raining.(probably, possibly, maybe) 3) modal verb phrases - It must be raining.
II. Modal verbs - they represent a situation as possible or impossible, certain or doubtful, necessary or unnecessary etc. They needn't be used in every sentence and they are to be regarded as an optional meaning of expressing modality. The category of mood, however, is marked in every sentence because it's indispensable to predication. Modal adverbs express different degrees of certainty on the part of the speaker or the desirability of the action of the speaker's point of view. We find the following modal verbs in English: can, may, must, shall, will, need, ought to, would, could, might, dare. Besides the aux. have and be can constitute modal verb phrases. A modal verb in combination with the infinitive of a notional verb constitutes a compound verbal modal predicate. M.V. are defective since their paradigms lack many forms characteristic of regular verbs: no 3rd person singular in the present simple tense, no non-finite forms (inf., particles, gerund), they have no analytical forms, some of them lack the past tense form. M.V. have two structural peculiarities: a) they are followed by the infinitive of the notional verb without to (with the exception of ought). You may go out. b) their interrogative and negative forms are constituted without the aux. do. M.V. normally can express two types of meaning: 1 - the speaker imposes the situation onto reality. You must submit the essay by Friday. 2 - the speaker interprets the relation b/n the situation reported and reality. It must be raining outside. Each of the modal meanings is characterized by a specific usage some of the meanings may be found in all kinds of sentences; other meanings occur in only in affirmative, others only in negative and others occur only in interrogative. Different meanings may be associated with different forms of the infinitive. You must do it. If M.V. have more than one form (will - would) their different meanings are not necessarily found in all their forms. The M.V. should and might can be used with reduced modal meaning in combination with a notional verb as a substitute of the subjunctive mood form of the notional verb. It's necessary that an investigation be made (Am.Engl.) should be made (Br.Engl.).
III. Semantic juxtaposition of M.V.
Can/may - the use of can and may is parallel only in two meanings: possibility (due to circumstances) and permission. In these meanings however they are not interchangeable. You may find this book at the library. He can find this book in the library.
Their time reference is always different. May refers only to present or future, the form might is used with past time reference only in reported speech. He said I might find the book at the library.
Can/could - may refer to present past or future. He can find the book in the library.
Could/might - combined with a perfect infinitive of the notional verb indicate that the action is not carried out in the past. When may/can express permission, the difference between them is rather that of style than of meaning. May is more formal than can. May I speak...;Can I have... Besides, the verb may in negative sentences expresses prohibition, but this use is not very common. You may not do that.
May/must can be compared in two meanings:
a) supposition - may denotes certainty, must denotes strong probability. He may be an actor. He must be in his office now.
b) they can express prohibition in negative Σ. In negative answers to questions with may, asking for permission we generally find mustn't. May I smoke here? No, you mustn't.
must/have to/ be to - must indicates obligation or necessity imposed by the speaker. He must do it himself, I won't help him. Have to - expresses necessity imposed by the circumstances. He has to do it himself, he has got nobody to help him.
Had to - implies that the situation took place in the past. He had to do it himself.
Be to - expresses necessity, resulting from previous arrangement. We are to wait for them at the entrance. Sometimes the idea of obligation is absent in be to, and the meaning is that of a previously arranged plan. We are to go to the cinema tonight. In public notices we find must because they express obligation imposed by some authorities. Visitors must not feed the animals. If the speaker wishes to make it clear that the plan was not fulfilled the perfect infinitive should be used. We were to have met him at the station. In reported speech (in past time context) must remains unchanged in all of its meanings. They believed the story must be true.
Shall/should - historically they were two forms of the same verb expressing obligation but later they came to express different meanings so that in present day English their use is not parallel and they are treated as two diff. verbs. Shall - 1. The modal meaning of obligation in shall is always associated with its function as future aux. The use of shall with second and third persons is restricted to formal style and is mainly found in subordinate clauses. 2. It is used in affirmative and negative Σ with the first and third persons, shall is used to ask after the will of the addressee. Shall I get you some coffee? Should - used with a reference to the present or future and remains unchanged in reported speech. It has the following meanings: 1. Advisability - you should go to bed. Its late. The combination should + perf. inf. has past time reference. He should have stayed at home.2. Strong probability of the speakers supposition. The film should be very good as it is starring first class actors. In this case it equals must. 3. Emotional colouring - the use of should in this case is structurally dependent. Why should I help you? 4. Weakened aux. should is used in some types of subordinate clauses with strongly reduced modal meaning. I am sorry that this should have happened.
Must/ought to/should
All the three verbs can express obligation. Must sounds forceful. You must answer right away. Should and ought to are often interchangeable when expressing obligation. Ought to lays more stress on moral obligation. You ought to help him. Should is commonly used in instructions and corrections. You should use a fork for the eggs.
Should/ought to/was to + perf.inf.
Should and ought to + perf.inf. show that the action has not been carried out though it was desirable. You should have helped him. Was to + perf.inf. indicates an action that has not been carried out though it was planned. He was to have arrived last week.

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