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Will/would
Would is historically the past tense form of will. It's used in 2 ways: 1. in past time context to represent a situation as an actual fact. 2. in non-past time context to express unreality or as a more polite form of will. Will/would are treated as forms of the same verb with the basic meaning of volition (a general term which includes such meanings as consent, intention, willingness, and determination to perform an action). However, in some of their meanings the use of Will is parallel only to would denoting an actual fact in the fact; in other meanings will is found alongside of would expressing unreality with non-past time reference. Would expressing an actual fact in the past; 1. habitual action. In this meaning Will/would are found in affirmative Σ. She would sit for hours under the tree... 2.refusal to perform an action. He was wet through but he wouldn't change. 3. The subject fails to perform its immediate function. I tried but the door wouldn't open. 4. used with the first person to express determination. I would do anything for him. Will/would expressing unreality in the present: 1. in interrogative Σ, expressing willingness or consent. Will you dine with me tomorrow? 2. the clauses of condition, introduced by if. If you will only let me talk, we are not going to quarrel.
The use of Will/would is not parallel in the following cases: 1. will may be used to express supposition with reference to the present or future. This meaning is found with second and third persons. You will have heard the news, I'm sure. 2. would may be used rather sarcastically to imply that the situation was not expected. I don't understand him and I don't approve of his decision. No, you wouldn't.
Will/would in set phrases: Boys will be boys. Would can be used as a weakened aux. I wish they wouldn't do it.
Expression of absence of necessity - the following verbs express necessity - must, have to, be to, should, ought to. But the verbs must, be to, should and ought to in their negative forms do not express absence of necessity. It can only be expressed by the negative forms of need and have to. Needn't indicates that the speaker gives authority to the subject or the non-performance of an action. You needn't go there. Don't have to is used when absence of necessity is based on external circumstances. You don't have to come to school on Monday. In the past tense don't have to both indicates that there was no necessity and hence no action. You didn't have to go there.

9. Verb (Morph)
The V is the most complicated grammatical word class because it performs a central role in the expression of the predicative functions of the ∑. The V has a complicated structure of grammatical categories. The V has also various sub-class divisions, what is more the V falls into two sets of forms profoundly different from each other. The finite and non-finite sets of forms. 1) semantic features of the V: the generalized meaning of the V is a situation presented dynamically. This generalized meaning is embedded in the semantics of all the Vs including those that denote states, events, forms of existence, types of attitude and so on. This holds true not only about the finite Vs but also about the non-finite Vs. This is proved by the fact that in all of its forms the V can be modified by an adverb and with the transitive V it takes a direct object. The most generalized meaning of the notional V determines its characteristics and combine ability with nouns expressing the agent (subject) and in cases of the transitive V. The generalized meaning of the V also determines its combine ability with an adverb which modifies the V. 2) syntactic functions of the V: in the ∑ the finite V invariably performs the function of the predicate expressing the categorical features of predication (tense, mood, person, number). The non-finite V performs various other syntactic functions except the function of the predicate because they cannot express tense, mood, person and number. 3) formal features - word building patterns: a) the V stems may be simple (go, read), b) built by means of conversion of the noun → verb type (to cloud), c) sound replacive - blood, to bleed, d) stress replacive - transport, to transport, e) through prefixation - large, to enlarge, f) through suffixation - stupid, to stupefy, g) compound V stems - blackmail, h) phrasal V stems: there are two structural varieties: h,1) have, give, take + noun - ex. take a walk, h,2) verb + postfix - ex. stand up, get off. The grammatical categories of the V are: tense, aspect, voice, mood, person and number and are only marked in the present simple form as well as in the past forms of the V to be. According to their lexico-grammatical features the Vs can be notional (with full nominative value), semi-notional and functional (with partial nominative value).

V

/

Notional semi-notional and functional

/ | | | |
Trans intrans link catenative modal auxiliary
Transitive Vs usually combine with objects in the ∑: they gave Tom the job. Intransitive Vs cannot take an object: the train arrived a 5 o'clock at the station. Link Vs function as a structural link between the subject and the subject complement: he is a teacher. Catenative Vs introduce non-finite forms of notional Vs in the ∑: he had his hair cut. Modal Vs express the relation between the reported situation and reality and are used with the infinitive of the notional V: you must do it. Auxiliary Vs: be, have (they constitute analytical, grammatical forms expressing categorial meanings), do (used in negative and interrogative ∑s with predicates in the present simple form or on the past simple form). Modal and auxiliary Vs share four properties called "NICE" properties - N for negation, I - interrogation, C - code, E - emphasis. Semantic classification of notional Vs (based on the relation of the subject of the V to the denoted situation).

| - Quality | - intellectual

| - STATE- | - Temporary state | - emotion/attitude

| | - Private state ------- | - perception

| | - Stance | - bodily sensation
Situation
type | - goings-on

| |--EVENT - | - process

| | | - momentary event

| | | - transitional event

|- NON-STATE ---|

| | - activity

|-- ACTION - | - accomplishment

| - momentary act

| - transitional act
1) State - refers to people or things, what they are like, the position they have taken: a) the Vs of quality - be, have: she is beautiful; b) Vs of temporary state - be, have: she is happy; c) private state: c.1) intellectual - know, like, c.2) attitude - like, love, hate, c.3) perception - hear, see, c.4) hurt, itch, ache, d) stance: - position, - action, 2) non-state : a) events - refer to things that happen. There is no stated human or animate agent or instigator for an event: a.1) process - a change of state takes place or is implied - ex. the general condition appetite improved, a.2) momentary event - an event takes place in a moment of time - ex. he fell on the ground, a.3) transitional event - an event is taking place in a moment of time but entails a change of state - ex. they arrived at the station at 5 o'clock, a.4) goings-on - such events take place involving an animate object. Such events are viewed as being in progress. There is no indication of an end to the going-on - ex. this plan is still working, b) actions: they do not just happen. They are usually performed by an animate agent or instigator. Actions are the result of the exercise of a will or intention on the part of the agent. Actions are done by someone. We can identify four types of actions corresponding to the four types of events: b.1) activity - a person or other animate agent is involved in doing something. The action is viewed as durative and no result is implied - she sang in clubs, b.2) accomplishment - a person undertakes an action with a result or achievement. Accomplishments take place over a period of time - Bell discovered the phone. b.3) momentary act - an agent performs an action taking place in a moment of time but without end or result - he kicked he door. b.4) transitional act - the action takes place in a moment of time and involves a change of state - he kicked the door open.

1. Simple ∑ (Synt)
For a better understanding of the ∑ we need a complementary approach combining different definitions and an outline of the major features of the ∑. 1) the 1st major feature of the ∑ is predicativity (pr-ty). This is the structural feature of the ∑ (it does not refer to the relation between the contents of the ∑ and reality). Actually pr-ty is the backbone of the ∑. It's also the basis of human thinking and communication. Pr-ty means saying something about something. Pr-ty is a binary relation between two members - one member (a subject) is the "thing" which the thought or ∑ is about and another member (the pr-te) which pr-tes something about (describes) the subject. Pr-ve relations should be differentiated from attributive relations. cf. very blue sky - attr-ve relation, the sky is blue - pr-ve combination, because it denotes some statement or thought whereas the attr-ve relation is just a label of things, objects, etc. By means of pr-ty we are able to relate one notion to another and thus express a statement. cf. blue + sky are notions but the sky is blue/should be blue/would have been blue are statements formed on the basis of the relation of these two notions. Inherently one of the notions is what is being subjected to description (the subject) and the other notion is the description thereof (the pr-te). The subject is anchored in space whereas the pr-te relates to time; thus they both make a spatial temporal framework. Thus pr-ty relates closely to space and time and a very terse definition of pr-ty is "relating features and characteristics to an object in space and time". Pr-ty is most often expressed by the subject - pr-te relation. Nevertheless in some cases there may be verbless pr-tes (he a gentleman!) or there may be even one member ∑s (Help!, Fire!) which do express pr-ty but in a rather truncated manner. 2) 2nd feature - modality (M). M is not a structural but a semantic feature of the ∑. It has to do with the relation between the statement and reality. A statement is the content of the ∑ i.e. whether a statement is true (factive) or is regarded as desirable, imaginable, compulsory etc. M may be expressed by different means of language: the category of mood, modal verbs (can, may etc), modal words (perhaps, maybe, probably etc). 3) 3rd - intonation (I). I is a two-fold function of the ∑: to delimit the ∑ in the flow of speech (one of the definitions of the ∑ is "a stretch of speech between two major pauses" and pauses are I-nal means). And the two-fold function of I is to render communicative meanings such as interrogation, exclamation, declaration. In some cases it's only intonation which makes the difference between a word or phrase at one hand and a ∑ on the other: cf water and Water!. cold water and Cold Water!?. The words and phrases in these examples are simply labels and express notions whereas the corresponding ∑s express simple thoughts and are units of communication. 4) 4th grammatical well-formedness (GWF). GFW means that a ∑ can only serve human communication if it is well shaped in accordance with grammatical rules: cf. he played vs. *he has play. Other features and aspects of the ∑: the ∑ is unique as compared to other linguistic units such as words and phrases because ∑s do not exist as such in the language system - they are created on the spur of the moment. The ∑ is a chunk of text built up as a result of speech making process; words and phrases are listed in the lexicon of the language but there is no preliminary list of ∑s. The ∑, just like any other unit of language, is pairing of meaning and form. Thus a ∑ has a semantic (meaning) aspect and a structural (grammatical) aspect. And these are not necessarily in a one-to-one correspondence. In some cases we have one meaning expressed in different structures: ex. Jack owns that car. That car belongs to Jack. In other cases we have one structure with different meanings: ex. Flying planes can be dangerous. Apart from a semantic and structural aspects ∑s also have a communicative (pragmatic) aspect, where a distinction is drawn between old (given) info and new (focal) info. The former is called theme and the latter is called rheme. This pragmatic theory stems from the Prague school of linguistics in 1930s and is known in Bg-a as "актуално членение на изречението" and in Eng as "functional ∑ perspective". The simple ∑ is a ∑ which can be analyzed as a single clause, in terms of subject, verb, adverbial modifier, complement and object. These are the five syntactic constituents of the Eng ∑. The hub of the ∑ is the verb. it determines to a large extent the pattern of the ∑. And according to different types of verbs there will be different number and types of complements.
Structurally simple ∑s can be divided into two-member ∑s and one-member ∑s. ex. Jane smiled - it contains two main parts - subject and predicate. There is a relatively limited group of ∑s which do not have the full set of two main parts, only contain one main part and are accordingly called one-member ∑s. This one main part is neither a subject nor a predicate because they are correlative notions: ex. Fire!, Come on!. One member ∑s are to be distinguished from two-member elliptical ∑s: ex. You look vary sad. Why (should I)not (look sad)? Verbless two-member ∑s fall into two types: a) subject-predicate type. The majority of ∑s here are exclamations expressing absurdity: ex. she a beauty! James clever! Such ∑s are not elliptical two-member ∑s because if a supposedly "missing" verb is supplied, this would result in a radically different meaning. b) predicate-subject type: ex nice thing beer, quite serious this. Such ∑s are "kind of" elliptical because the meaning wouldn't change radically if a verb is inserted. However only the communicative effect would not be the same.
3. Reference (TL)
There are three types of reference (R): personal, demonstrative (d-ve) and comparative. Personal reference is reference by means of function in the speech situation through the category of person. D-ve reference is reference by means of location on a scale of proximity. Comparative reference is indirect reference by means of identity or similarity. We also have extended R. and text R. The pronoun "it" may refer not only to a noun or nominal expression but also to any identifiable portion of text - extended reference. "It" may refer to a fact in which case we speak of text R. 1) Personal R.: the category of personals includes: personal pronouns, possessive determiners (usually called possessive adjs) and possessive pronouns. Personals referring to the speech roles: speaker and addressee are typically exophoric (ex-ic). They become anaphoric (an-ci) in quoted speech. Personals referring to other roles are typically an-ic. They may be ex-ic when the context of situation permits identification of the referent in question. With generalized ex-ic reference "YOU" and "ONE" mean any human individual. "WE" is used in similar fashion but more concretely, involving a particular group of individuals with which the speaker wants to identify himself. We also distinguish ROYAL and EDITORIAL "WE", MEDICAL "WE" (how are we?) and IMPERSONAL "WE" used in expository writing. "THEY" is used to mean "persons unspecified". "IT" occurs as a universal operator in a few expressions (It's hot/cold). In one respect possessive pronouns differ from other personal reference items regarding their an-ic function, whereas the other personals require only one referent for their interpretation, possessive pronouns demand two - a possessor and a possessed. Possessive pronouns are doubly an-ic because they are both referential (to the possessor) and elliptical (to the thing possessed). Third person pronouns other than "IT" may refer cataphorically (cat-ic) to a defining relative clause (he who hesitates is lost). All third person pronouns occur in clauses in which their referent is delayed to the end (they are good theses peaches). "IT" is very frequently used in this way where the subject of the clause is a nominalization (it's true that he works very hard). 2) d-ve R:



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Яндекс.Метрика
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