Държавен изпит за Английска филология

Категория на документа: Други

Neutral the

Near near: far:

Far (not near) singular this that
Selective participant plural these those

place here there

circumstance time now then
The d-ves occur with an-ic function in all varieties of the Eng. Both "this/these" and "that/those" refer an-ically to something that has been said before with reference to proximity. "that" tense to be associated with a past time referent and "this" for one in the present and future (that/this night). a) singular and plural. The plural forms may refer an-ically not merely to a preceding plural noun but also to sets that are plural in meaning. the singular d-ves may refer to a whole list irrespective of whether or not it contains items that are themselves plural. b) head and modifier. a d-ve as modifier may refer without restriction to any class of nouns. A d-ve as head can refer freely to non-humans. The only instance where d-ves can refer pronominally to human referents whether an-ically or ex-ically is in relational clauses where one element is supplying the identification of the others (ex. do you want to know the woman who designed it? that was marry smith.). 2.1) an-ic and cat-ic d-ves. "that" is always an-ic. "this" may be either an-ic or cat-ic. Structural cataphora is very common especially with the definite article but it has no cohesive function. Textual cataphora is true reference forward in the text and therefore is cohesive. "the" in many ways resembles the d-ves but it has no content. It merely indicates that the item in question is specific and identifiable. The reference is either ex-ic or endophoric. If it is ex-ic then we can have specific situation (ex. don't go: the train is coming) or simply any situation (ex. one member of a class - the son, a whole class - the stars). With endophora cat-ic reference is limited to the structural type and is never cohesive (ex. the ascent of mount Everest). The only case when "the" is cohesive is with an-ic reference. It some cases "the" can be both cat-ic and an-ic [the (cat) people we stayed with had four children. The (cat. an) eldest girl was about nine.] or even cat-ic, an-ic and ex-ic (look at the moon! The daytime moon always seems so sad). The d-ve adverbs "here" and "there" regularly refer to extended text and "then" often with a meaning that is not one of place but of "respect" (ex. you are wrong there). The temporal d-ves "then" and "now" are much more restricted in their cohesive function. The cohesive use of the d-ve "then" has the meaning of "at the time just referred to" and the use of "now" is confined to those instances in which the meaning is "this state of affairs having come about". 3) comparative reference:

identity - same, equal, identical

General similarity - such, similar, likewise

| difference - other, else, different

| numerative - more, fewer, so, many

Particular epithet - better, so good, as bad as
General comparison expresses likeness between things (it's the same cat as the one saw yesterday). With "so" and "such" we may observe extended and text reference. Particular comparison expresses comparison between things in respect of a particular property. (we are demanding higher living standards. Take some more tea.)
4. Substitution (TL)
Substitution (S) is a relation between linguistic items such as words or phrases whereas reference is a relation between meanings and ellipses can be defined as S by zero. According to the grammatical function of the substitute (s-te) item there are three types of S: 1) nominal (one, ones, same), 2) verbal (do), 3) clausal (so, not). 1) nominal: the s-te "one/ones" always function as head of a nominal group and can s-te only for an item which is itself head of a nominal group (I don't like the green dress. I like the red one). One has the same function as dress - head. There is no s-te for mass nouns because with S a feature is repudiated and a new feature is introduced (green dress, red dress). Ex These biscuits are stale. Get some fresh ones. This bread is stale. Get some fresh. The nominal s-te "one, ones" is always accompanied by some modifying element. This element is not necessarily the same in its structural function in the nominal group as that which it repudiates (bullets made of platinum (qualifier). Leaden ones (qualifier)). So S is used where the reference is not identical or there is at least some new specification to be added. "one" can never s-te for a proper name, because a proper name is already fully defined as unique (ex. have you seen john? well I saw the tall one just now. (more than one john)). With S there is always a contrast and re-definition. With S we can introduce a feature without repudiating another. (ex. did you like fires? Only wood one.) Homonymy of "one": a) the personal pronoun "one" (generalized reference, used exophorically, no cohesive function), b) cardinal number - it's not modified and is always stressed (ex. he made one very good point), c) the indefinite article "one" - it belongs to the class of non-specific determiners (a, any, either, neither). It's plural form is "some" and it has the same function as "a". (ex. I'd like a cup of coffee. Then pour yourself one.) d) the pro-noun - generic noun: it s-tes for human reference. Generic nouns are person, people, man, woman, child, boy, girl, object, stuff, business, matter, affair. (ex. the children seemed to enjoy the outing. The one who didn't was George.). The nominal s-te "same" can s-te for: a) an adj (john sounded rather regretful. Marry sounded the same), b) for a noun, c) for a fact (john thought it was impossible. Yes I thought the same). d) for a process (they all started shouting. So I did the same) 2) verbal S: The verbal s-te in Eng is "do". This operates as head of a verbal group. "do" may s-te either for a verb or for a verb + certain other elements in the clause but it can never s-te for the whole clause. (Does granny look after you every day? She cunt do at weekends) At weekends is introduced, every day is repudiated. Homonymy with "do": 1) lexical verb "do" - appears in the following phrases and always transitive. (do some job. I have work to do| Let's do the accounts). 2) General verb "do" (ex. that will do him good) 3) the pro-verb: it s-tes for an unidentified and unspecified process (I'm glad he's doing something) 4) the grammatical operator "do" (does she sing? Yes she does (operator), No but Marry does (operator, sustitute). 3) Clausal S: the positive form is "so", the negative is "not". Clausal S takes place in report, condition and modality. a) S of reported clauses (don't you think you'd be safer down on the ground? Of course I don't think so) b) S of conditional clauses (everyone seems to think he's guilty. If so, no doubt he'll offer to resign). c) S of modalized clauses (would you like my opening the window. Certainly not). Unlike ellipses S does not occur in the passive (has the doctor been called by anyone. * I don't know. *I haven't done. *Someone has done. No he hasn't been(ellipses).

5. Connectors and connection (TL)
Connection refers to relations between propositions. The presence of a connector is a signal that there is a semantic relation between two propositions. Propositions can also be connected without a connector. Connectives can be: 1) conjunctions (coordinating and subordinating: and, or, because, for, so,). Their function is to make composite ∑s from simple ∑s. 2) sentential adverbs (yet, nevertheless, consequently). They make ∑s out of ∑s. 3) prepositions with a connective character (due to, in spite of, as a result of), 4) interjections and particles (you know, isn't it). Predicates of various categories (to conclude, to concede, to add, it follows that). 1) conjunctions: conjunctions are classified into: a) conjunction, b) disjunction, c) concession, d) contrast, e) condition, f) reason, g) finality, h) circumstantial (time, place, manner). a) Conjunction "and" it may express: a.1) simultaneous (ex. She is reading and he is writing). a.2.) succession (ex. He opened the window and looked out), a.3) location (ex. He went to the store and bought some beer), a.4) conclusion (ex. the number 5 is a prime number and it is divisible only by one or itself), a.5.) conditionality (ex. Give me your picture and I'll give you mine), a.6) cause (ex. Paul pounded on the stone and he shattered it), b) disjunction: b.1) exclusive relation of disjunction (ex. She is in the kitchen or in the bathroom), exclusive disjunction is more natural if one of the disjunctions if true the whole is true. It two are false the whole is false. Exclusion can be: b.1.1.) necessary (ex.I cannot be both married and single), b.1.2) accidental, b.2) inclusive relation (Ex. He is a president or an actor or both). If the speaker intends to do both alternatives the use of the ∑ is incorrect pragmatically not grammatically. c) conditionals - facts determine or condition each other. c.1) counterfactual conditionals - what is known is that the negation of the antecedent is true (ex. If it had not rained, the soil would have dried up), c.2) hypothetical conditionals - the relation between antecedent and consequent is cause and relation - if ... then; in case ... then. c.2.1) "as if" relation → the antecedent is true in the real world. The consequent is assumed to be false in the actual world. It may denote a comparison on apparent sufficient condition of the fact expressed in the antecedent, c.3.) actual conditionals: because, for, therefore, so, since, due to, hence, thus, while, consequently, ass. d) contrastives - their use for exceptional causes of events. With contrastives the antecedent is sufficient condition for the negation of the consequent. They express unexpected or contrastive relations between facts: but, though, although, yet, nevertheless, whereas, in spite of, notwithstanding, anyway. The contrastives are used to express non-satisfaction of possible, probable or necessary condition. "but" can be combined with "yet" and "nevertheless" (ex. We slept late but nevertheless we caught the boat. - unexpected consequence). Events and properties can be contrasted (ex. The glass was very thick, but nevertheless it broke. - event. The glass is very thick but nevertheless it is fragile - properties). e) sentential adverbs - yet, nevertheless, consequently, f) prepositions

6. Ellipsis (TL)
Ellipses (E) can be defined as substitution by zero. With E something is unsaid but nevertheless understood. (ex. John bought some carnations and Catherine some sweet peas - the verb is omitted. Would you like to hear another verse. I know 12 more. - the noun is omitted). There are three types of Es: 1) nominal, 2) verbal, 3) clausal. 1) nominal E has basically to do with what parts in the nominal group can have the function of the head after the head has become elliptical. The function of head is always filled by a common noun, pronoun or proper noun. Proper nouns and pronouns are not further specified. Common nouns can be further specified by deictic, numerative, epithet, classifier. When the common noun is omitted the function of head is taken over by one of the latter elements. 1)a) Determiners functioning as head: determiners or deictic words are specific and non-specific. The specific are demonstrative pronouns, possessive pronouns and the definite article "the". The non-specific are each, every, all, both, any, some, either, neither. (ex. The men got back at midnight. All were tired out ("all" is a deictic word functions as head)). (ex with non-specific determiners - Here are my two white silk scarves. Where are yours?). 1).b)In the following example the numerative is upgraded to function as head - ex. Four other oysters followed them and yet another four. - the second "four" is head. 1)c) epithet as a head - ex. which lasts longer - the curved rods of the straight rods. The straight are less likely to break. 1)d) classifier as head - Here are my two white silk scarves. OK would you prefer the cotton. The "cotton" if the classifier functioning as head. 2) Verbal E: it is sub-divided into a) lexical E - have you been swimming? Yes I have (the verb is missing), b) operator E - What have you been doing? Jacking off. What precedes the verb is missing. Ex. Taking photographs is a waste of time (non-elliptical). What is he doing? Taking photographs. Operator E. Another ex. Jane was secretary once but I don't think Marry ever has been. (non-elliptical). Jane should have been told but I don't think she has been. (lexical E). 3) clausal Es: it is of two types: a) modal and b) propositional. The ∑ is divided into modal and propositional part. The modal element embodies the speech functions of the clause. It consists the subject plus the finite element of the verbal group. The propositional element is the remainder of the verbal group plus any complements or adjuncts. Part of the propositional element can precede the modal element. Ex In the park the duke was going to plant .... the ___ is the modal element. E occurs most often in question-answer pairs. Modal E - ex. What were they doing? Holding dicks. The modal element is missing. Propositional E: Has the plane landed? Yes it has.
I hear Peter is having an operation. Yes he's having an operation (this is the full ∑). Yes he is. (propositional E). With clausal E we have to omit more than one element. With the omission of a single element we speak of reference. The line between what is elliptical and what not is not very sharp. Ex. 1. Simon's playing. Let's not interrupt. 2. Sandra cleans for me when I'm out (the flat is omitted). 3. Run! Here we do not have E though 1 can be treated as elliptical because the complement is missing.

11. Complex ∑ (Semant)
According to their structure ∑s are subdivided into simple and composite. simple ∑s have only one S-P group(a set of two main parts-subject and predicate), whereas composite ∑s contain more than one clause. Composite ∑s are further subdivided into compound and complex sentences. The compound ∑ is structured on the basis of coordination -coordinated clauses, while the complex ∑ is structured on the basis of subordination-subordinated clauses.
I. Subordination links units on different levels. only two clauses can be linked by subordination. If there are two clauses in the ∑ and one of them is subordinate then the other is superordinate (main) clause. If two or more independent clauses are coordinated, each of them can be made superordinate in relation to other clauses. subordination enables us to organize multiple clause structures. Each subordinate clause may itself be superordinate to one or more other clauses, so that a hierarchy is built. 1) independent clause is a clause capable of constituting a simple ∑. 2) dependent clause - makes up a gram. ∑ only if subordinate to a further clause. Ex. it is late (independent), *because it is late - (dependent). I'm going home because it is late. (indep.+dep.)
II. structural classification of dependent clauses. 1) finite clause: a clause containing a finite verb. ex. because John is working. 2) non-finite clause: containing a non-finite verb. ex. (John) having seen the pictures. 3) verbless clause : without verbal element.
Ex. although always helpful

(subordinator) (adverbial) (complement)
III. the complex ∑ is a unit which can be broken down into immediately smaller units, which are clauses. One of the factors which determine the order in which the constituent clauses of a ∑ are arranged is the principle of resolution - the final clause bears maximum emphasis. In reading aloud it is often marked by intonation. There are three major types of subordination: 1) initial. Ex. If you agree we shall leave tonight. The initial subordination is limited to one degree of embedding. This is because no subordinate clause can itself be the first element of another subordinate clause, but must at least be preceded by a subordinator. Ex. [{That ( if you could) you would help me} is of small comfort] where "if you could" is subordinator 2) medial. Ex. We shall leave, if you agree, tonight. Medial subordination is the one that causes most difficulties of comprehension, especially if the nested element is long and complex. 3) final. Ex. We shall leave tonight, if you agree. There is a tendency to favor final subordination. It can reduce awkwardness to a minimum. Ex. [ It is of small comfort { that you would help me ( if you could) }] Temporal clauses and "if" clauses favor the initial position. Adv. correlative construction require initial placement of the subordinate clause.
In spoken English where immediate ease of syntactic composition and comprehension is important/necessary, coordinate structures are often preferred to equivalent structures of subordination: ex. subordination: As it was wet, we decided to stay at home. Ex. coordination: it was wet, (and ) so we decided to stay at home.
IV. when there are more than two clauses in a complex ∑, it is possible for ambiguities to arise through alternative analysis that can be given to the same group of clauses: ex. I knew that you had seen him before I met you. interpretations: a) = I knew that, before I met you, you had seen him. b) = before I met you, I knew that you had seen him.
Ex. He knows and I know that he knows. The question is whether the final subordinate clause belongs to the second of the coordinate clauses, or to both together. Punctuation or intonation can distinguish them: a) he knows, and I know that he knows. b) He knows, and I know, that he knows. Ex.
Something tells me he's cheating and I can't do anything
(indep. clause) (subor.clause) (coordinate clause)

to make it clear we reintroduce "that " into the second of the two subordinate clauses: something tells me that he is cheating and (that) I can't do anything.
V. Devices for avoiding ambiguity: 1) altering the order of the clauses. 2) using punctuation. 3) supplying elippted elements 4) using intonation.

1. Text and Discourse (TL)

Сподели линка с приятел:

Държавен изпит за Английска филология 9 out of 10 based on 2 ratings. 2 user reviews.