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The word text is used in linguistics to refer to any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that does form a unified whole. A text may be spoken or written, prose or verse, dialogue or monologue. It may be anything from a single proverb to a whole play, from a momentary cry for help to an all-day discussion on a committee. A text is best regarded as a semantic unit: a unit not of form but of meaning. thus it is related to a clause or ∑ not by size but by realization, the coding of one symbolic system in another. A text does not consist of ∑s ; it is realized by, or encoded in, ∑s. text is a communicative occurrence that has the following features (seven aspects of textuality): cohesion - the grammaticalized aspects of context (reference, elipsis, substitution, connectedness), coherence - expressed , informativity, situationality, intertextuality, intentionality and acceptability. A text is a unit of language in use. Language is the basic menas of communication. ∑s are not isolated, we communicate with sequences if utterances and pair ∑s with the context of their use, even if the text is a single ∑. Text is referred to as a process or product when we think of it as process we usually refer to it as discourse. Discourse analysis is the analysis of language in use. As such it cannot be restricted to the description of linguistic forms independent of the purposes or functions which these forms are designed to serve in human affairs. Discourse analysis is concerned with language in use in social contexts, in particular with interactional dialogues between participants. We distinguish also between context of situation and cognitive context (in our mind); cultural context. When speaking of social context we mean the definition of self and situation. Cognitive context concerns our past experience and knowledge. Cultural contexts have to do with shared views and meanings. Context is always genitive and language is communicative - addressed to a person, interpreter who is always a recipient. The messages we convey can be informative, communicative, interactive (their aim is to modify the behaviour of the recipient → Open the window). Language is reflected even in syntax. Communicative processes guide the emergence and development of syntactic structures. There is much in the structure of languages that can only be explained on the assumption that they have developed for communication in face-to-face interaction. The features of language to prove that language is designed for communication are: 1) redundancy of meaning - it is designed to ease the process of communication. 2) designed from the point of view of the recipient - theme and dream; it takes into account the current state of information of the recipient. The basic properties of language are structure, meaning, action - it forms a structure, conveys meaning and accomplishes actions.

2. Cohesion and Coherence - main aspects of text (TL)
When we speak of cohesion we first need a term to refer to a single instance of cohesion - a term for one occurrence of a pair of cohesively related items - this is called a tie. We can characterize any segment of text in terms of the number and kinds of ties which it displays. The different kinds of cohesive tie are the basis on which we can distinguish between the different kinds of cohesion: reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion.
The concept of cohesion is a semantic one; it refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text and that define it as a text. Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another. The one presupposes the other, in the sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except by recourse to it. When this happens, a relation of cohesion is set up, and the two elements, the presupposing and the presupposed, are thereby at least potentially integrated into a text. Cohesion is part of the system of a language. The potential for cohesion lies in the systematic recourses of reference, ellipsis and so on that are built into the language itself. Cohesion is expressed partly through the grammar and partly the vocabulary. We can refer therefore to grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion. In "Wash and core six cooking apples. Put the apples into a fireproof dish.", one of the ties is grammatical (reference, expressed by "the"), the other lexical (reiteration, expressed by "apples"). The types of cohesion - reference, substitution and ellipses are grammatical, but we also have lexical cohesion. Conjunction is on the borderline of the two; mainly grammatical, but with a lexical component in it. Cohesion is a semantic relation. But, like all components of the semantic system, it is realized through the lexico-grammatical system; and it is at this point that the distinction can be drawn. Some forms of cohesion are realized through the grammar and others through the vocabulary. It may be added that certain types of grammatical cohesion are in their turn expressed through intonation.
Since cohesive relations are not concerned with structure, they may be found just as well within a ∑ as between ∑s. Cohesive relations have in principle nothing to do with ∑ boundaries. Cohesion is a semantic relation between an element in the text and some other element that is crucial to the interpretation of if. This other element is also to be found in the text; but it's location is in no way determined by the grammatical structure. the two elements, the presupposing and the presupposed, may be structurally related to each other, or they may not; it makes no difference to the cohesive relation. What cohesion has to do with is the way in which the meaning of the elements is interpreted. Where the interpretation of any item in the discourse requires making reference to some other item in the discourse, there is cohesion.

7. Lexical Cohesion (TL)
Lexical cohesion (LC) embraces two distinct though related aspects which we refer to as reiteration and collocation. Reiteration is a form of lexical cohesion which involves the repetition of a lexical item, or the occurrence of a synonym of some kind, in the context of reference; i.e. where the two occurrences have the same referent. A reiterated item may be a repetition, a synonym or near-synonym, a superordinate or a general word; and in most cases it is accompanied by a reference item, typically "the". Ex. 1. There was a large mushroom growing near her, ... she stretched herself up on tiptoe, and peeped over the edge of the mushroom. (repetition of mushroom). 2. I took leave and turned to the ascent of the peak. The climb is perfectly easy... (climb refers back to ascent, of which it is a synonym.) 3. He clutched the sword and threw it. The great brand made lightnings...(here brand refers to sword, of which it is a near synonym). 4. Henry's bought himself a new Jaguar. He practically lives in the car. (here car refers back to Jaguar; and it is a superordinate of Jaguar - that is, a name for a more general class.) All these instance have in common the fact that one lexical item refers back to another, to which it is related by having a common referent. This general phenomenon is regarded as reiteration. Collocation - ex. "Why does this little boy wriggle all the time? Girls don't wriggle." "girls" and "boys" are hardly synonyms, nor is there any possibility of their having the same referent; they are mutually exclusive categories. Yet their proximity in a discourse very definitely contributes to the texture. There is obviously a systematic relationship between a pair of words such as "boy" and "girl"; they are related by a particular type of oppositeness, called complementarity. We can therefore extend the basis of the lexical relationship that features as a cohesive force and say that there is cohesion between any pair of lexical items that stand to each other to some recognizable lexical semantic (word meaning) relation. This would include not only synonyms and near synonyms such as climb-ascend, decease-illness, and superoridantes such as elm-tree, boy-child, but also pair of opposites of various kinds, complementaries such as boy-girl, stand up-sit down, antonyms such as like-hate, wet-dry (pussy) etc. and converses such as order-obey. It also includes pairs of words drawn from the same ordered series. Ex. If Tuesday occurs in one ∑ and Thursday in another, the effect will be cohesive; similarly dollar-cent, North-South. The members of such sets often stand in some recognizable relation to one another; they may be related as part to whole, like car-brake, box-lid, or as part-to-part, like mouth-chin. The members of any such set stand in some kind of semantic relation to one another, but for textual purposes it does not much matter what this relation is. There is always the possibility of cohesion between any pair of lexical items which are in some way associated with each other in the language. So it is to be found a very marked cohesive effect deriving from the occurrence in proximity with each other of pairs such as the following, whose meaning relation is not easy to classify in systematic semantic terms: laugh-joke, blade-sharp, ill-doctor. The cohesive effect of such pairs depends not so much on any systematic semantic relationship as on their tendency to share the same lexical environment, to occur in collocation with one another. In general, any two lexical items having similar patterns of collocation - that is, tending to appear in similar contexts, will generate a cohesive force if they occur in adjacent ∑s.

6. The articles - specific/generic reference (Morph)
I. Articles (a, the) - the use of the articles is not the only possibility for determining nouns in the gram. sense of the word. There are other lingual units that function in a similar way: possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite, negative, defining pronouns. These words are called determiners. They constitute a closed system. This means that they are of limited number and their number cannot be expanded by the creation of additional elements. Within this system the articles are central i.e. they have no function independent of the noun they precede. Furthermore the articles have no lexical meaning of their own but only contribute definite gram. status to the nouns they determine. The dependence is not unilateral. The definite article can occur with common countable and uncountable nouns. a/an can occur only with single nouns. The articles and the rest of the elements in this closed system are closely connected with the nouns they determine. In addition to determiners there is a large number of other items that occur in determinative function in combination with some central determiner. We can divide those units into two groups: pre and post determiners. 1) Predet. are unique in occurring before the determiner. They can be grouped into three varieties: a) all, both, half, b) multiplier - double, twice, thrice, c) fractions - 3/4. Pre-determiners are reciprocally exclusive. 2) Post determiners can be subdivided into: a) ordinals - first, other, last. There are two kinds of patterning with ordinal numbers: first, next + cardinal numbers = first two. Second, third and the other ordinals cannot be followed by any quantifier and modify singular countable nouns. Cardinals and quantifiers are mutually exclusive, b) Cardinal numbers are used in the following way: one accompanies singular countable nouns, two, three combine with plural countable nouns. ex. all the four brothers are sailors, c) quantifiers - many, little, more, several. These are mutually exclusive - several occurs without an indefinite article. Ex. several charming girls. Plenty of, a lot, of lots of - also function as post determiners. II. Articles with common nouns - concrete countable nouns are used with generic reference. When it is used like this the distinction between singular and plural and the distinction between definite and indefinite are gram. irrelevant. Ex. Kittens like to play. - A kitten likes to play. 4) common countable nouns used with specific reference. Ex. There is a kitten playing on the sofa. - Some kit..... 5) abstract nouns as a rule do not take an article when standing alone. Ex. you must learn to face life seriously. Sometimes concrete nouns acquire abstract meanings - this shift of meaning results in a shift of semantic subclass. Such nouns are treated as uncountable. ex. Outside it was night. III. The use of articles with proper nouns - proper nouns can be divided into two groups: a) given and b) descriptive names. a) Given are conventional designations that tell us nothing about the referent itself. b) Descriptive are derived from common noun, usually with some defining modifier. Ex. the United States of America. Descriptive names as a rule include an article. The Netherlands, the Ukraine. Names of people are among the most typical examples of given names. When standing alone names of people do not as a rule take an article. If however the name is accompanied by an adj., the use of an article becomes necessary. The definite article is included in the structure of the phrase when the adj. denotes some permanent quality of the referent of the noun. Ex. The immortal Shakespeare.
Exceptions: the adj. - young, old, poor, little do not take the article because they are considered to be forming part of the name itself. When the adj denotes a temporary feature the indefinite article should be included in the structure of the phrase: ex. He was received by an unsually sad Marry-Ann. The definite article is often used with family names in the plural: ex. The Browns. The indefinite article may occur with a family name meaning one member of that family: ex. She was a Stewart. *Names combined with titles. Titles are common nouns. When they stand by themselves they take an article. Ex. Once upon a time there lived a king. He is the king of Britain. When a territorial name is included in a title, the definite article is also included. Ex. The prince of Wales. When the title is combined with a personal name the article is dropped. ex. Queen Elizabeth, Prince Charles; exception the Emperor Napoleon. *Titles of periodicals. The names of novels, plays are usually treated as independent entities forming a proper noun. The title itself may contain an article it its own right. Ex. cf. The mill on the floss. and George Elliot's Mill on the floss. In referring to classical literature the article is often added. Ex. The "Prometheus inchained". Names of paintings and statues are usually accompanied by the artist's name and take no articles. Ex. Michelangelo's David. Names of newspapers and periodicals usually print the definite article: ex. The daily news. The times. In referring to periodicals the definite article should be used: he was reading The Spectator. Names of ships always take the definite article. Ex. The Titanic. Names of hotels: ex. The Ritz, but Hotel Ritz. Names of countries. Given names take no article: France, Holland, Nigeria. Descriptive names usually include the definite article. The United States of America. Names of districts - the majority are given names. ex. Wessex. Descriptive names take definite article: The Balkans. Towns and villages nearly always have given names: London, New York; the chief exception is The Hague. Names of mountains: names of mountain ranges are frequently formed of an adj+mountain: The Rocky Mountains. Smaller or less well known mountains or mountain peaks are given names and take no article. Ex. Rila, Mount Everest. Names of seas and oceans: these are always descriptive and include the definite article: The Black Sea. Names of lakes: Lake Michigan. Names of rivers: The Thames. Buildings and institutions: a) West Minster Abbey, b) adj+definition - The National Gallery, c) The Tate Gallery. IV. Specific/generic reference: common nouns can be used in two different ways - with specific or generic reference. Generic reference is used to denote what is typical or normal for members of a class. Ex. tigers are dangerous animals. A tiger is a dangerous animal. The French are amicable people. Specific reference is observed in classes when the noun is used to denote specific specimen of the class: ex. A lion and two tigers are sleeping in the cage. The lion in the cage is quite young. 1) Generic reference - uncountable nouns and plural countable nouns used with generic reference do not take an article. Ex. He likes cheese, (uncountable concrete). He likes literature (uncountable abstract). He likes computer games. (countable plural). The use of a defining modifier require the definite article. Ex. He likes the music of Beethoven. Nationality words are used with generic reference accompanied by the definite article. Ex. The Turks captured Turnovo in 1393. Adjs denoting personal qualities, when substantivized take the definite article as a rule. Ex. The rich, the blind. Such nouns are always used with plural verbs. Non-personal adjs can be sunstantivized too. They take the definite article and combine with singular verbs. Ex. The evil. Common concrete nouns sometimes acquire abstract meanings. In such cases they take no article. Ex. They left town early in the morning. It is spring. 2) specific reference - the indefinite form is taken to be the unmarked form in the system of definiteness. It's natural to consider the indefinite as basic to the idea of definiteness. The definite can be shown to be secondary to the indefinite in the following ∑. John bought a computer and a CD player but later returned the CD player. The use of the definite article in the second part of the ∑ is dependent on the earlier mentioning of the same noun with the same referent preceded by the indefinite article. Ex. The computer John bought is Japanese. These are two ∑s that contain linguistic reasons for the use of the definite article within the noun phrase structure. In such cases we speak of linguistic specific reference. Sometimes the definite article is used with nouns whose reference is immediately understood by the users of the language either because of the cultural situation or because the referent is only one. ex. It is in the press, the moon, the ground. In such cases we speak of situational specific reference.




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