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3. Non-finite clause - a) With to+infinitive - ex. To say this in public is stupid.
N.B. If the infinitive has a S of its own it has to be introduced by "for" - ex. For John to marry Alice would be the ultimate bliss. B) with an "-ing" form - ex. Saying that you are sorry won't help you.
4. Anticipatory "it"+a finite or a non-finite clause - To say this in public is stupid → It is stupid to say this in public. There are different approaches as to what the S is. A) "it" is the formal grammatical S whereas "to say this" is the notional(смислов) S. Features of "it" as a true S: 1.initial position, 2.involved in inversion and negation. But "it" is not what the ∑ is about, B) "it" is the S (for reasons given above). "stupid" is the S complement and "to say this" is apposition. C) in this case we have a complex discontinuous S -

It is stupid to say this

|___________|

Discontinuous Subject
5. Unstressed there - it is a S in the so-called existential ∑s - ex. There is a can under the table. Typically "there" is followed by "be". A) The status of "there" is arguable here. "there" is like a true S because (see "it"). B) The best view here is that "there" is a discontinuous S. N.B. Structures with "there" are very important in English because they make it possible to shift the real S in post-verbal position. This may be necessary for pragmatic reasons when the S is very clumsy and big and has to be placed at the end - ex. There came the day when we finally met after 5 years of negotiations.

5. Predicate (Synt)
I. Definition: the P. is the second main part of the ∑ and together with the S it constitutes the predicative bond which is the structural backbone of the ∑. It ascribes features to the S and relates to the temporal characterization of the "state of affairs". Normally the P is a verb as a part of speech but there are also verbless predications.
II. Types of Ps - structurally there are simple and compound Ps. Morphologically there are verbal and nominal Ps. The combinations of the structural and morphological parameters yields four types: simple-verbal, simple-nominal, compound-verbal, and compound-nominal.
Simple-Verbal P (S-V P) is a finite verb in simple or compound tense form - ex.
She opened the door. The door has been opened.

S-V P S-V P
The latter counts as simple because, despite the fact, that there are three verb forms, there is in fact one composite form of the verb "open", it is one sense unit, one discontinuous verb form. A sub-type of the S-V P is the so called phraseoligical P. This type comprises two elements - a verb with vague meaning like make, take etc. + "verbal" noun - the two elements, however, make one sense unit and cannot be analyzed separately. There are two sub-types here: a) finite verb + indefinite article + "verbal" noun. Ex - Have a smoke/swim/look. Give a smile. Take a walk. This type indicates a momentary action and is one of the major means in English of compensation for the lack of distinction - св/несв вид на глагола. B) vague finite verb + notable absence Ø + abstract noun + preposition (usually "of"). Ex - To get rid of. To catch sight of. To make fun of. To pay attention to.
Simple-Nominal P (S-N P) - it consists of a noun or adjective without link verb. There are two types: a) in exclamations expressing absurdity - ex. She clever! He a gentleman! She a bitch! Such expressions are not to be treated as elliptical ∑s with a supposedly missing verb because if this "missing" verb is inserted then the meaning would be radically different. cf (compare) She is clever ≠ She clever! B) colloquial expressions like - Nice thing beer! Quite serious all this. Such expressions may be treated as elliptical ∑s because the insertion of a link verb does not change the meaning of the expression although the communicative effect would not be quite the same.
Compound-Verbal P (C-V P) - it comprises two verb forms each bearing separate lexical meaning; the two elements are semi-auxiliary and a notional part. The notional form is an infinitive or an "-ing" form and it denotes the "action" of the P; the semi-auxiliary has either modal or aspective meaning and it is a finite verb form. "Aspective" has to do with the manner of the verbal action, the way the verbal action takes place. Relevant distinctions here are beginning of action, ending, duration, stopping, fading etc. As a consequence of the above there are two main types of C-V P depending of the meaning of the semi-auxiliary part: A) modal C-V P, B) aspective C-V P. The meaning of the modal C-V P can be rendered by the following structures, a.1) modal verb + infinitive: can work, may come, would not speak, a.2) verb with a modal meaning + infinitive or "-ing" form. Verbs with modal meanings are: want, wish, long, crave, desire, hope, intend, etc. a.3) "be" or "have" + infinitive - He is to arrive tomorrow. He has to arrive tomorrow. a.4) "be going" + infinitive - He's going to arrive tomorrow. Here belong phrases like - had better/best, would rather - ex. I'd rather stay but I'd better go.
B) Aspective C-V P - in this case the semi-auxiliary denotes beginning, ending, duration, etc. Verbs with aspective meaning are: start, keep, cease, proceed, go, stop, - ex. He began reading/to read.

C-V P
Compound-Nominal P (C-N P) - it consists of a link verb + predicative (subject complement = Cs). The Cs is the notional part - She is a teacher.

V link Cs

P
Cs relates to the S. The link verb (V link) connects the S and the Cs and is usually void of lexical meaning. There are cases, however, when V link features some vestige of lexical meaning. Ex. She married young = She married and she was young. In this case the verb "married" functions both as a V link and as a full lexical verb. Such cases are known as double predicates. The V link can also be in the passive. Ex - He was found guilty. V link
The gradation of weaking of the lexical meaning of the V link can be demonstrated in the following examples: a) she went away a child.

Double P - it has retained lexical meaning
b) People go naked in the beach.

Less lexical meaning, almost delexicalized but not quite
c) He went mad. - No meaning of movement = pure V link.

6. Predicative (Pr) = Subject Complement (Cs) (Synt)
Cs is a part of the C-N P. ex - She is nice. He grew pale. Cs denotes features of the S, it completes the meaning of the V link by referring back to the S. Ex. He is a teacher.

↑_______|

completes
Typically the Cs is an adjectival or nominal constituent but the prototypical Pr is adjectival because the adj. is a linguistic element that denotes cha-tics and features.
Classification: 1. According to the meaning of the V link. A) Stative Prs - (Prs of "being") they denote a permanent quality of the S - ex. She looks nice - "nice" in connection with "looks" denote a stative feature. The prototypical V link is "be". All others are reducible to "be" and can be reinterpreted in terms of "be". B) Dynamic Prs (Prs of "becoming") these denote a change, transition in the features or qualities of the subject. The prototypical V link here is "to become" and all others are reducible to it. Ex. - He grew pale = He became pale. 2. According to the degree of integration between the V link and the Pr: A) Extrapositional Pr. - ex- There he sat, a giant among dwarfs. This kind resembles the apposition. B)the supplementary predicative (S Pr) - ex. He married young. Here the connection between the V link and the Pr is more "intimate" than the extrapositional; the V link nevertheless has retained some of its base lexical meaning and has a double function in this case - lexical meaning + link function. Such cases are called double Prs. S Prs. Can also be used with active or passive verbs (active in form and passive in meaning) ex. The house sold dear. The S Pr occurs also after passive forms. ex The door was painted green. C) true Prs. (T Pr) - the V link is almost void of lexical meaning and is nothing but a link between the S and the Cs. Ex. She looks happy. The T Pr unlike the two other types is inseparably bonded with the V link. In some cases a particular V link can function with S Pr or T Pr. Ex. to stand. C.1) He stood godfather to the child. C.2) She stood 6 feet in her stockings. With C.1. we have T Pr. - the verb is void of lexical meaning and the bond is inseparable. With C.2 we have vestigial lexical meaning in the verb (standing upright) → a S Pr.
The verbs which typically take Pr of "being" belong to three major groups: verbs of appearance - seem, appear, look, show ex The house showed white in the distance, verbs of taste - sound, feel, taste ex The soup tastes sour, and verbs of continuance - continue, remain, rest ex - They continued friends. Typical verbs of "becoming" are become, grow, get - these are inchoative verbs. Also verbs of motion - come, turn, run, go ex She went mad.
Morphological realization: 1. Since the Cs ascribes features to the S the prototypical Cs is adjectival. Hence the first and most typical realization is an adjective phrase. Ex. Everything went black - single adjective phrase. He appeared glad to see me - compound adjective phrase, consisting of a head - "glad" and a modifier "to see me". Adj Prs can function with passive V links. Ex Mr. Smith was found guilty. 2. A noun phrase is the second most common realization of the Pr. Ex. His death remained a mystery. "a mystery" - simple noun phrase. Acapulco is the best place there to spend a holiday. - "the best place" - head, "to spend a holiday" a modifier. Her son came home a decrepit wreck - double Pr. The Cs in passive ∑s corresponds to the objective Complement (Co) of active voice ∑s. ex. They elected him chairman. Him - direct object, chairman - Co. He was elected chairman. Chairman - Cs. Here we may have cases with "as" - ex The victim was identified as mayor's son. 3. Prepositional phrase can also be a Pr. (rare case) ex. He looks of about my age. 4. A finite clause - ex His theory is that women are O.K. sometimes. We can have a Pr introduced by "as" -ex. Things remained as they have been in the past. 5. A non-finite clause - two types: a) infinitive clauses - usually preceded by "to" - ex His ambition is to become a doctor. In some cases introduced by "wh" word - ex. The problem is where to find her. In rare cases possible without "to". Ex. What I usually do is go out and buy ax. N.B. If the infinitive has an explicit S of its own it should be introduced by "for" ex. The thing to do is for us to take the stone, B) -ing clauses. - may or may not have an explicit S - ex Her conduct was putting the cart before the horse. The most surprising thing was John being elected chairman.
It is an interesting phenomenon that nouns may acquire adj-val features when used in the function of Pr. This is due to the fact that the prototypical Pr is adj-val and that's why if a noun has the same function it may resemble the adj. This change of nouns towards adjs can be observed in the following cases: A) the noun may take degrees of comparison which finds expression by different meanings. Ex I'm not philosopher enough to solve this. B) neutralization of gender - since gender is not an absolutely relative category for English an appropriate parameter for noun is animate vs. inanimate which does not apply to adjs. By neutralization we actually refer to neutralization of animateness. So this parameter can be indirectly manifested by means of the relative pronouns "which" vs. "who". Ex. When a good person, which my friend was, leaves you become sad.
"Which" (not who) refers to "good person" and indicates its conception as inanimate entity similar to an adj. C) loss of definition of article - this is not always the case but it happens. It indicates the adj-val nature of Prs. Ex. He turned Ø traitor. He stood Ø sentry. D) possessive pronouns lose their determinative force. This is best seen in Bg-an. Ex. My friend came to see me. = Моят приятел... He is my friend = Той е мой приятел.




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