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7. Object (O) (Synt)
Os are part of the complementation of the verb. They complete the meaning and refer to or denote two participants directly or directly or indirectly affected by the v-al action. Typically Os are nominal constituents. The whole set of verbal complements are complements on the one hand and Os on the other. Os are complements of transitive verbs and depending on the relation to the verbal action they are sub-divided into Od (direct object - directly affected by the verbal action), Oi (indirect object - indirectly aff...) and benefective object which is very similar to Oi. If there is only one O in the ∑, it must be Od and such verbs are called monotransitive verbs. Verbs that take 2 Os are ditransitive and in most cases they take 1 Oi + 1 Od. The Oi always precedes the Od. Ex. I gave the girl a dick. The Oi can be recognized by its position. Such exs, however, are not typical. The typical case is when the Oi is animate whereas the Od is inanimate. And then the distinction anim vs. inanim helps differentiate between the recipient and the thing received. English demonstrates a universal tendency: [animate] > [inanimate]. That's why if two elements are structurally identical the animate one would come closer to the verb. This is due to the fact that language is an androcentric phenomenon (created by and centred around and on ppl). There is only one exception to this rule - when the Os are pronouns then the Od may precede the Oi - ex I gave the girl a dick → I gave it to her. If, however, the two Os are structurally different then there is a tendency for the simper structure to come first. Ex. N.P. > P.P (prep phrase) I gave a dick to the girl. Ditransitive verbs are usually verbs like: to give, to show, to send, which take 1 Oi (Ob) + 1 Od. Diagnostic features for Oi are: 1. It can't stand alone, it must be accompanied by Od. 2. It can be paraphrased by means of a prep structure with "to" and "for". There is however a small group of ditransitive verbs where the distinction Od vs. Oi is neutralized. Such verbs do not need these criteria. These verbs are: to teach smbd smth, to forgive smbd smth, to ask, to envy etc. ex. I forgave my husband his stupidity. Any of these two Os can stand alone hence none of them needs criterion 1. Also if we try to paraphrase the "suspected" Oi (my husband) we get the following ∑. I forgave the stupidity to my husband.*hence it does not need the criterion 2 either. Therefore there is no Oi with verbs of this group. Such verbs should be treated as cases with 2 Ois. Vtr+Od1+Od2 where one of the Os is anim and the other is inanim. This means that the animacy hierarchy would come into effect here on two occasions (at least): 1. The word order - anim+inanim ex. I envied my friend his car. *I envied the car my friend. 2. In the passive. Theoretically any O can be paraphrased into S in the passive but with these verbs only the passive with the anim O would be widely used, whereas the passive with the inanim one would be marginal. Ex. My friend was envied the car. The car was envied my friend.? The passive paraphrase is a viable test for the "Ohood" of a constituent. So any O in Eng can be paraphrased as a passive S. ex. She was given a book. A book was given to her. The children were looked after → in this case even the prep O has been paraphrased as a passive S. Passivization in Eng is extremely flexible and is acceptable as long as there is the slightest idea of "affectedness" not only with Os but even with adv. modifiers. Ex. Napoleon has slept in this bed. → This bed has been slept by Napoleon. "affectedness" = make famous hence, if a constituent in Eng can undergo passivization this is considered an indication of its "Ohood" (at least some degree of affectedness).
Semantic types of Os - semantically there are different "contents" for the Od and for the Oi. A) the Od can be a.1.) an affected participant referring to a person or thing which is directly affected or otherwise involved in the verbal action. This is the typical role of the Od. Ex Jack broke the bottle.

affected Od
a.2.) effected participant/Od. It denotes smth which exist by virtue or comes as a result of the verbal action. Ex Jack invented the bottle. The difference between a.1. and a.2. is a covert category which can be only indirectly attested by the so called "do to" test. cf. What did Jack do to the bottle? a) he broke it - o.k. → affected, b) he invented it - * effected. The type effected or affected is determined by the semantic contents of the verb. a.3. Locative Od - it denotes location. In most cases this type results from prep phrases where the preposition has become redundant. This is a phenomenon that seems to be gaining ground in Eng. Ex. To walk the streets (along, through). In Bg-rian - to much less a degree. Минават къщата и завиват наляво. A.4. cognate Od. - This type is from the same or similar root as the verb. ex To sing a song. To dream a dream. A.5. Os of extent or measure - ex. 1. To run a mile. 2. The car weighs a ton. 3. The blouse costs 10$. These are called so by Quirk. But other grammars offer another treatments especially for the 2-nd and 3-rd exs. Here the Os are called predicator complements. (a predicator complement is an indispensable addition to the verb without which the verb cannot function or its meaning would be different). Semantic types of Oi: 1. The most typical role of the Oi is that of a "recipient" and it is invariably animate. cf. I found your mother a place in the room.

recipient Oi | Od |
*I found the TV set a place in the room. - Because the "TV set" is inanimate. The correct version of this is: I found a place for the TV set in the room. 2. In rare cases as an exception we may have expressions like:
I gave the door a kick.

an affected Oi effected Od
Morphological realization of Os. The main distinction here is between non-prepositional and prepositional Os. N.B. Od and Oi are both non-prer-nal. There is no such a thing as prep Oi. The prep-nal O can be mistaken for the prep adv-al modifier. cf. He looked at the girl. → The girl was looked at. → passive, possible only with prep Os. Hence "at the girl" a prep O. ex. He waited at the corner. → *The corner was waited at. → A prep adv-al modifier. The preposition of the prep O is determined (governed) by the verbal semantics. Whereas the preposition of the adv-al modifier does not depend on the verbal semantics, it is determined of the semantics of the adv-al modifier itself. Another morphological type is the complex O which consists of two parts which together from one syntactic unit. The prototypical Oc is the nexus O. (contains a non-finite verb form) ex I saw him run/running. In some grammars the combination Od +Co is also treated as a complex object but this is arguable. Ex. She made him happy. There is one more variety of Oc - the prep Oc with the "for...to" construction. Ex They waited for the lecture to be over.

8. Attributes (Synt)
This is a secondary part of the ∑ which accompanies another constituent. The A is not included in the 5 major ∑ constituents - SVACO. The constituent to which the A refers is called its antecedent or head and the relation between A and head is an attributive relation between an entity and its features. This relation should be distinguished from the Pr relation. Since the A denotes features the typical A is adj and the typical antecedent is nominal. Syntactically the head of the A can be a S, O, Pr or sometimes adv. modifier. Types of A: 1. According to position: a) prepositive A, b) postpositive A. When dealing with translations one should be careful because there are certain asymmetrical discrepancies between Eng and Bg-an. In some cases Eng allows large prepositive A, which have to be rendered by postpositive ones in Bg-an. Ex. A mid-thirties car. Кола от средата на 30-те. And vice-versa. Sometimes in Bg-an prepositive A with non-finite verb forms especially participles are quite common but they are to be avoided in Eng. Ex. Разрушената от бомба къща. The house destroyed by a bomb. 2. Semantically: a) restrictive - they are essential for identifying the antecedent. Ex From all cars in the garage my friend bought the green car. b) non-restrictive - they simply convey additional info which is not essential for identifying the antecedent. Ex. My blond husband is very silly.
Morphological realization: I. prepositive As can be realized by the following items: a) an adj. ex. delightful cottage, b) a participle: crumbling cottage and completed cottage, c) an 's possessive form - a fisherman's cottage, d) a noun phrase - a country cottage, e) adv-al phrase - a far away cottage, f) a clause - a what-do-you-call-it cottage. II. Postpositive As are typically realized by non-finite verbs structures (nexus constructions) 1. Present participle - Ex. The dog barking next door is a bitch., The tree, swaying in the breeze, had a lot of fruit. 2. Past participle - ex The car repaired last night is mine. The substance, discovered almost by accident, has revolutionized medicine. 3. The infinitive: ex The first train to arrive was from Siuey Liuey. The scholar, to be seen daily in the library, chokes the bishop on a regular basis. 4. Prepositional phrase can also be a postpositive A. Ex The road to London... The girl in the corner... The possessive form with "of" also belongs here. Ex The chimney of the house. 5. Adjs - some adjs, usually under French influence, can also be postpositive As. This is marginal type: blood royal, time immemorial, court marshal, knight errant. Some adjs on "-ble" can also follow the antecedent (which does not mean that they cannot precede it). Ex Darkness impenetrable filled the room. 6. A single adv can also be in a postposition. Ex The road back.

9. The Adverbial Modifier (Synt)
I. Definition: the AM is a secondary part of the ∑ characterizing the verbal action as to time, place, manner, intensity, quality, condition, purpose, etc. The AM describes the circumstances for the verbal action.
II. Classifications: 1. According to meaning - this is basically a semantic classification but it also has some syntactic relevance especially in connection with word order (WO) which is more or less fixed to the following pattern: AM time S-V A manner. A place. A time. AM can be: a) of place and direction ex To live in England, To go to England, b) of time and frequency ex At 5 o'clock, usually, never. AMs of frequency have special position in the clause: always before the verb but after the verb "be" and between the first auxiliary and the rest of the predicate. Ex. I usually go there. I am usually there. I am usually walking my dog at 5 o'clock these days. c) of manner - ex. He opened the window carefully. d) of purpose - ex. He stopped to have a drink. e) of cause - ex. I was stiff with long waiting. f) of result - ex. She looked back to see them coming. g) condition - ex. If you love me I'll buy thee a car. h) of concession - ex. In spite of the quarrel they remained friends. I)of subsequent events - ex. They went to the country to find their house burned to the ground. j) of attending circumstances - ex. The sun shining brightly, they went out for a walk. 2. According to morphological realization: a) an adv - the most typical ex. They often stayed there. b) a noun phrase - ex He visited us last week. c) prepositional phrase - ex. He stayed at a hotel. The prepositional adverbial modifier (PAM) is similar to the prepositional O and they can be mixed up sometimes. cf. I waited at the corner.

Adv. mod
He looked at the girl.

Prep O
Despite the superficial similarity there is a major difference between such cases. The preposition of the AM does not depend on the verbal semantics, it's determined by the semantics of the AM itself. That's why one and the same verb can be followed by different PAMs. Ex. I waited at the corner/under the table/on my back. On the other hand, the preposition of the prepositional O is determined (governed) by the verbal semantics. Hence one verb can take only preposition - ex Look at, wait for, look after, wait on. d) non-finite verb clause (nexus) - ex. The weather being fine, they went out for a walk. He struggled to achieve success. e) a verbless clause - ex. Grateful for my help, they sucked the hell out of my dick. f) finite clause - ex. When they saw me they ran away. g) absolute construction (nexus construction with its own S) - ex. The meeting over, they fucked their brains away. The job done, we had a blowjob. h) a single noun - ex. He waited an hour. In some cases the adv mod can have residual or vestigial meaning of affectedness and in this way be close to an object. The affectedness can be attested by the (im)possibility of passivization. Ex. Nobody has slept in this bed. → This bed hasn't been slept in. Passivization is possible due to the residual idea of affectedness - the circumstances (the bed) bear some evidence or traces (affectedness) as a result of the verbal action. This phenomenon isn't possible in Bg-an. cf. В леглото е спано. Обст поясн
Passivization indicates affectedness of the S. Hence the "bed" is affected. 3. According to head word i.e. to which other constituent the AM relates. Syntactic classification. The AM can refer to: a) a verb - the most typical case - ex. She greasily blew the hell out of my dick. b) to a verbal noun - a noun identical with the verbal stem - Ex. He made a jump forward. c) and adj - pretty often - ex. She was intensely happy. d) to an adverb - ex. She feels very well, e) to a ∑ - ex. Usually, we milked the billy goats early in the morning. 4. According to the degree of integration of clause structure. Here the main distinction is between the more integrated (adjuncts) and less integrated, peripheral (disjuncts and conjuncts). The test for this distinction is as follows: A: If an AM cannot appear initially in a negative declarative clause it is an adjunct. Ex. They quickly left the room → *Quickly they didn't leave the room. Hence "quickly" is an adjunct. cf. with perhaps. Ex. Perhaps, they didn't leave the room. Hence "perhaps" is not an adjunct. The logic of this test is that if an AM is closely integrated in the clause then it is affected by clausal processes like negation and interrogation and cannot be extracted to clause-initial position in negative and interrogative clauses. B: If an AM can be contrasted with another AM in alternative interrogation (or negation) then it is an adjunct. Ex. He wen to Sofia on Monday. Alternative interrogation → Did he go to Sofia on Monday of Tuesday. Alternative negation → He didn't go to Sofia on Monday but on Tuesday. Hence on Monday is adjunct. cf. To my surprise he wen to Sofia. *Did he go to Sofia to my surprise or to your surprise? He didn't go to Sofia to my surprise nor to your surprise. Hence "to my surprise" is not an adjunct. If an Am doesn't meet both criteria for adjuncts it is either a disjunct or conjunct. Conjuncts are distinguished from disjuncts because they have primarily connective function - conjuncts cannot serve as a response to any question. Ex. We sent him an invitation. Therefore, he will be here tomorrow. Will he be here tomorrow? *Yes, therefore. Hence "therefore" is a conjunct. If an AM can serve as a response to a yes/no question, it is a disjunct. cf. Probably he will be here tomorrow. Will he be here tomorrow. Yes, probably. Hence - disjunct.

10.Compound sentence (Synt)
According to their structure ∑s are subdivided into simple and composite. simple ∑s have only one S-P group(a set of two main parts-subject and predicate), whereas composite ∑s contain more than one clause. Composite ∑s are further subdivided into compound and complex sentences. The compound ∑ is structured on the basis of coordination -coordinated clauses, while the complex ∑ is structured on the basis of subordination-subordinated clauses.
While co-ion is a linking together (by means of conjunctions) of two or more elements of equivalent status and function, subordination is a non-symmetrical relation, holding b/n two clauses X and Y in such a way that Y is a constituent or part of X. The term coordination is used by some grammarians for both syndetic coordination - when explicit indicators of co-ion are present - and asyndetic one - when the relationship of co-ion is not marked overtly. Explicit indicators of coordination are called coordinators. ex. 1. Slowly and stealthily, he crept towards his victim.(syndetic co-ion) 2. Slowly, stealthily, he crept towards his victim.(asyndetic co-ion) the possibility of inserting the coordinator and is evidence that the construction is syndetic coordination. Explicit indicators of subordination are termed subordinators. Both co-ion and s-ion involve the linking of units, but in co-ion the units are constituents of the same level whereas in subordination they are on different levels. ex. "his first and best novel"- (co-ion), premodifiers of "novel"; "his first good novel"- (sub-ion),"first" does not modify novel directly; it modifies "good novel" and "good" in turn modifies "novel".
Differences b/n co-ion and sub-ion: 1. In subordinate clauses the inf. is not asserted, but presupposed as given. 2. Only with coordination can the order of the two constituents be changed without a consequent change in the semantic relationship of the units. * Coordinators are and, or, and but. The two or more clauses that may be coordinated are termed "conjoins". Of the three coordinators, "and" is the least restricted in its role as coordinator of clauses and but the most restricted. * Semantic implications of coordination by and. And denotes merely a relation b/n the clauses. The only restriction is the semantic one that the contents of the clauses should have sufficient in common to justify their combination, i.e. there should be connection b/n the semantic content of the clauses to motivate their combination, otherwise a nonsense will occur. ex. * The people went out for a walk and the equator is equally distant from the two poles. With and we have eight types of semantic implication: 1. The 2nd clause is a consequence or result of the 1st. We have chronological sequence. Ex. He heard an explosion and he (therefore) called the police. 2. The 2nd clause is chronologically sequent to the 1st, but without any implication of cause-result relationship. Ex. She washed the dishes and (then) she dried them. 3. The 2nd clause introduces a contrast. And could be replaced by but. Ex. Robert is secretive and (in contrast = but) is candid. 4. The 2nd clause is a comment on the 1st. ex. They disliked John - and that's not surprising. 5. The 2nd clause is surprising and the 1st has concessive force. Ex. He tried hard and (yet) he failed. Here too "but" can replace "and". The use of "and" creates a special rhetorical effect, enhancing the impression that the 2nd clause is unexpected. 6. The 1st clause is the condition of the 2nd. Ex. Give me some money and (then) I'll help you escape. 7. The 2nd clause makes a point similar to the 1st. ex. A trade agreement should be no problem, and (similarly) a cultural exchange could be arranged. 8. The 2nd clause is a "pure" addition to the 1st, the only implication being that the two statements are congruent. ex. He has long hair and (also) he wears jeans. Semantic implications of coordination by or: Usually "or" is exclusive, excluding the possibility of a realization of all but one of the alternatives. ex. You can sleep on the couch in the lounge or you can go to a hotel. Semantic implications of coordination by "but". "But" denotes a contrast. ex. John is poor, but he is happy. * Linking of more than two clauses: "and" and "or" can link more than two clauses, and when this is done all but the final instance of these two conjunctions can be omitted. ex. John might take them by car, or Mary might go with them by bus, or I might order a taxi for them.→ John might take them by car, Mary might go with them by bus.

1. Vowel length (Pho)
Since in the formation of a vowel sound no stoppage occurs anywhere, there is no theoretical limit to the length of time taken in producing a vowel, except the necessity for drawing breath, and vowels of the most varied length can be produced. In Bg-an differences of length are not employed phonologically and the various vowels are all roughly the same length and equally short. In Eng, however, differences of vowel length play a very important part, and failure to observe this is the chief cause of bad pronunciation. We can distinguish differences of vowel length combined with differences of quality, and differences of length due to position. As much as the differences of length due to position are concerned it should be borne in mind that in Eng all stressed vowels and diphthongs are appreciably longer when they stand before a voiced consonant than before an unvoiced one. This lengthening is especially noticeable when the consonant is in final position, and it is in fact only owing to its lengthening that the final consonant can retain its voiced quality instead of becoming unvoiced in final position. For voiced consonants differ from unvoiced ones not only in being accompanied by the voice but in being formed with a weaker air stream. In order to achieve the necessary weakening of the air stream its force must be broken by drawing out the preceding vowel sound. It is in fact impossible to produce a true d in a word like bid without either adding a vowel sound after the d, which must be avoided at all costs, or else lengthening the vowel. Although the lengthening is most noticeable before a consonant in final position, it occurs also when an unstressed syllable follows. Thus greasy may be pronounces either [gri:zi] or [gri:si], but in the first case the [i:] is distinctly longer. In this way we can distinguish four different lengths of vowels in Eng: short vowels - bit, cot, cup, lengthened short vowels - bid, cod, cub, long vowels - beat, sort, cart, and lengthened long vowels - bead, sawed, card. Actually, however, it might be said that lengthened short vowels and unlengthened long ones are approximately the same length, differing more in quality that in quantity and that there are in fact only three different vowel lengths. Of course it must be borne in mind that in all these cases we are speaking not of the absolute, but the comparative length. The absolute length will depend on the speed with which a person is speaking; in slow speech the absolute length of a short vowel may actually be considerably longer than that of a long vowel in rapid utterance, but whether the speech is slow or rapid these relative differences of length will always be preserved. The length also depends to some extent on the quality of the vowel; closed sounds are as a rule slightly shorter than open ones under similar circumstances, but these differences are of little importance since they depend on psychological tendencies common to all speakers. Apart from these positional lengthenings there is a distinct tendency to lengthen the short vowels in certain more commonly used words, especially [æ] sounds, to a lesser extent [e] too. For example the adjs bad and sad are generally pronounced with a much longer [æ] than the less frequent lad or pad. And here one might be inclined to attribute the lengthening to the emotional quality or the adjs. But it is hard to see any emotional quality in the nouns jam and bag that they should be similarly lengthened, though the corresponding words are not. There is even sometimes a lengthening of [æ] before unvoiced consonants in back and that. A similar lengthening [e] occurs in bed, dead (compared with fed, tread), and especially in yes, which when spoken by itself is almost always long; sometimes of other vowels too in big and good (compared with pig and hood). Further factors determining vowel length are emphatic stress, and also rhythm, which is of considerable importance. Attention to rhythmical lengthening is extremely important for a good pronunciation.

2. Word stress (Pho)
Not all parts of a word are pronounced with equal force. In words with more than one syllable, at least one of the syllables will stand out more strongly than the others and is said to bear the stress or accent. The difference between stressed and unstressed syllables is common to all languages, but the rhythm and stresses of English, with its tendency towards words of one syllable, are very different from those of Bulgarian with its polysyllabic flow. Above all the amplitude of the stress, the difference in force b/n stressed and unstressed syllables, is very much greater in English than in Bulgarian. In comparatively recent times large numbers of many-syllabled words have been borrowed from foreign sources, mainly Latin - words sometimes of as many as seven syllables, like indivisibility. In such cases it's impossible to pronounce all seven syllables with only one stress; the rhythmical principle asserts itself, and besides the main or primary stress a rhythmical differentiation makes itself felt in the unstressed syllable, some of which are more strongly stressed than others, without however rivaling the primary stress in force. In such cases we speak of secondary stress: indivisibility has e.g. stresses on the 1st and 3rd syllables besides the main stress on the 5th - ,indiv,izi'biliti. Also a large number of words are compounded of two parts, each of which may retain its original stress, as in 'arm-'chair. In such cases we speak of double or level stress.
Single stress
It is hardly possible to give any definite rules for the position of the main stress in English. In words of native origin it is nearly always the 1st or the root syllable that is stressed, while in words of Latin origin the main stress is not very often drawn forward beyond the 3rd syllable from the end, though it may fall on any of the last three. The chief exception to this tendency is when a native suffix like -ly or -ness is added to a Latin polysyllable with the stress on the 3rd last syllable - gram'matically. But there are also foreign suffixes that allow the stress to very early, especially -atory in words like 'masticatory, 'dilatory, 'laboratory. One may also note that every word in English has some sort of stress on one of the 1st two syllables, though it may be only a comparatively weak secondary stress that may even be disregarded in phonetic transcripts. With very few exceptions( refu'gee, perso'nel), in polysyllables of French origin the stress is usually withdrawn from the final syllable to the preceding secondary stress, which is in fact mostly the 3rd syllable from the end: 'exercise, a'bility.

There are a considerable number of suffixes that definitely fix the position of the stress.

1. words of recent introduction in -esce, -ee, -eer, -ier, -ese, -oon, -esque, -ique, ose, -ie, ette stress the suffix itself: coalesce, absentee, pioneer, grenadier, Chinese, poltroon, picturesque, unique, grandiose, bourgeoisie, coquette.

2. adjs. in -ismal and -tic stress the penultimate: baptismal, sadistic.

3. words in - ion, -ious, -eous, -uous, -ial, -eal, -ual, -ean et al. Stress the syllable immediately before the prefix: occupation, envious, righteous, impetuous, celestial, corporeal, perpetual, Mediterranean.

4. words in -ize, -ise [aiz] -yse, ate, (verbs only), -ite,-ute, -fy stress the antepenultimate: recognize, exorcise, analyse, (but characterize), investigate, desolate, attitude, satisfy, definite. If however the form consists of only two syllables the original stress on the final syllable is retained: devise, locate, complete, defy, delute etc.



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