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5. the native suffixes like -dom, -fold, -ful, -hood, -less, -ly, -ness, -ship, ward etc. have no effect on the stress which remains that of the simplex.
Double stress
Double stress occurs most frequently with regular compounds in which each part presents a separate idea. The most important prefixes taking double stress are: a) those implying a negative, or the opposite of the simple word: a-, an-, anti-, dis-, in-, im-, il-, ir-, mis-, non-, un-, Except with anti- and non- is more or less optional, and secondary stress may be used instead: amoral, analphabetic, anticlimax, disconnect, insincere, illegal, imperceptible, irregular, misprint, nonpayment, unknown. If the second element is used in a different sense or function from the simplex, single stress will be used: mis'take, 'nonstop. b) those implying a quantitative qualification of verbs and adjs: half-, over-, under-, out-, super-, ultra-; half-done, over-ripe, underestimate, outgeneral, superfine, ultramodern. c) those implying a temporal qualification mainly of verbs and adjs: ante-, pre-, post-, re-; antedate, prepaid, postwar, recover. d) those implying a relationship - with nouns, though the resulting form may be used attributively: joint-, inter-, sub-, under-, vice-, arch-; joint-ownership, inter-league, sub-dean, under-secretary, archbishop. e) those implying directions in combinations serving as adverbs and adjs: up-, down-, under-, over-, out-, in-, trans-; upstairs, downstairs, overhead, indoors, outside, trans-Atlantic. When used as attributes many of these forms lose their second stress for rhythmical reasons. f) the numerals compounded with -teen (thirteen) form a distinct group that may be included here. A great many of the words with double stress do not always preserve both stresses except in isolation.

3. Basic melodies of Eng intonation (Pho)
Intonation may be defined as the variations of pitch within a ∑ or breath group, i.e. the part of a ∑ contained between two sense pauses. These variations produce a certain melody. But the number of melodies made use of in a given language are not infinite, they can be reduced to a certain number of types, of which there are five main ones in Eng. In Eng the melody is in the main determined by the so called kinetic tones in which the pitch of the voice is lowered or raised, or both lowered and raised within a single syllable - hence the name, because the voice is in motion all the time the tone is being formed. Every breath group contains one such kinetic tone which determines the type of melody. For that reason it is also called the nuclear tone of the ∑. The remaining tones within the ∑ are in themselves level as a rule, though they are mostly arranged in a definite scale leading down to - less frequently up to - the kinetic tone, which in normal, unemphatic speech is the last stressed syllable of the breath group. What comes before the nuclear tone - mostly the greater part of the ∑ - is known as the head of the group, the syllables after the nucleus form the tail. If the group consists of a single monosyllable, head and tail will both be missing, but the essential part of the melody, the kinetic tone, will still remain and since we can recognize 5 types of kinetic tone, we have a corresponding number of melodies. I. The falling tone: `yes, `there (it's there). The extent of the fall can express various shades of meaning, from a simple statement to exasperation at somebody's stupidity. II. The rising tone: َyes?, َthere? It expresses either a question or a suggestion that the statement is not finished, that there is something more to follow, or at least that whatever statement has been made is not intended as very definite. III. The fall-rise tone: `َyes? (do you really mean to say so?), `َthere? (is really there?). Since it is fact emphatic form of tone II it mostly expresses the same meaning, but with the addition of doubt, uncertainty, surprise. IV. The rise-fall tone: َ`yes (of course, it's obvious), َ`there (it's there, cunt you see!). The rise-fall often suggests a certain sense of superiority on the part of the speaker, but also, if the whole tone is raised, glad, surprise or enthusiasm. V. The rise-fall-rise tine: ~yes (I'm not at all sure that I agree, but we'll wait to hear the rest), ~there! (you can't possibly mean that it's there, do you!). This tone often contains a tone of flattery or ingratiation - or sometimes a rather querulous compliant.

2. The Noun (Morph)
I. General characteristics:
1. Semantics - The Noun as a word class is the main nominative unit of language. It has the categorial meaning of entity (thing, person, animal, abstract notion). The N has the power by way of nomination to isolate different properties of substances, situations and present them as self dependent entities. Ex. Her words were unexpectedly bitter.(adj.). They were struck by the bitterness of her words.(ab. noun).
2. Form - as a grammatical class the N is characterized by a set of formal features which determine its specific status in the paradigm of nomination.
Ex. Man - man, men, man's, men's (the paradigm)
The N class has its word building distinctions:
a) Typical suffixes. Ex. Discrimination, freedom
b) Compound stems. Ex. Passer-by, rainbow, knight-errant
c) Nouns produced through conversion, Ex. Walk (N,V)
the class of the N discriminates the gram. categories of number, case, gender and article determination.
3. Syntactic functions - typical of the N class are the functions of subject and object and sometimes noun modifier (attribute) Ex. A film festival (attribute) Ex. He is a student (subject complement) Ex. They elected him president (object complement)
II. Semantic classifications of N. The class of N can be divided into several subclasses depending on the semantic and gram. features of the lexemes. The most important division of N from the point of view of Grammar is into proper and common N. However there is no strict line of demarcation: proper N as Sunday, April, Easter represent concepts that are not strictly speaking unique but recur at regular intervals. On the other hand common N like The Sun except in the language of astronomy denote unique referents. There are nouns like Heaven and Hell which partake to a large extent of the nature of proper nouns.
Common N be further subdivided into countable and uncountable. Countable N represent a separate entity, smth. complete in itself which maybe either concrete (material) or abstract (immaterial). Uncountable nouns denote referents of continuous quantity; Uncountable N do not represent definite entities and therefore are indifferent to the category of number. U.N. too maybe subdivided into concrete or abstract. The concrete countable nouns might be also subdivided into individual N and collective nouns (improper - family, orchestra, parliament). The U.N. concrete may be subdivided into several mass N and collective nouns proper (furniture, cattle)
Proper nouns give the name of some unique individual, place or other entity. Common nouns give the name of a species of things or concepts.
III. Shift of semantic subclasses - the classification of N into categories such as proper and improper, countable and uncountable is founded on separate meanings of the nouns. Words are constantly widening the limits of their meaning, often in such a way that they develop a secondary meaning which may represent a diff. category from that of the basic meaning. Ex. Hooligan (family name)
Sometimes the connection between the various meanings of the lexeme is still felt. Ex. tin (metal) - a tin (metal box).
Pr. N. into C. N.
The proper noun as a rule gives the name of a unique referent and as a rule it is not capable of forming a plural, nor is it necessary to define it by means of the article. Yet the proper noun may undergo shifts of meaning which will convert it into a common noun, and it will than be treated like any other common noun. This mostly happens in one of the following ways:
a) persons bearing the same name. Ex. She was a Stewart.
b) persons with similar characteristics. Ex. Edisons and Markonies may thrill the world with astounding novelties.
c) by metonymy the mane of the author may stand for his works. Ex. This picture is a Rubens
d) parallel forms may exist with geographical names Ex. The two Americas.
Common N. into Proper N.
Many Pr.N. have developed out of C.N. ex. a smith - the Smiths
Unc.N. into Count.N. ex. beauty - a beauty
Unc.N. like pr.N. do not form a plural, nor do they take the article as a rule. By a shift of meaning an Unc.N. can easily be converted into C.N. and will then be treated grammatically as a C.N. This happens:
a) a mass word can be used as a countable in the sense of a portion.
b) a mass word may be used as a countable in the sense of a particular kind ex. dry wines, a light white wine
c) a word of substance may be used by metonymy for something made from it. Ex. cloth - a table cloth, copper - a copper.
Abstract into concrete nouns - abstract nouns may take on a more concrete meaning becoming countable in this way. Ex. beauty - a beauty
Concrete into abstract nouns - the opposite development, the transition from the concrete to the abstract is not always separable from the transition, from the countable to the uncountable. Ex. go to bed - go to the bed
IV. Partitive phrases - in spite of the comparative frequency of various shifts of subclasses, not all uncountable nouns can be directly converted into countable nouns. Often we have to resort to various partitive phrases in order to make the meaning of the uncountable nouns individual and concrete. Ex. a piece of advice, of furniture.
I. Structure of the noun phrase - it consists of several structural positions: determiner (pre-modifier) and head (post modifier).
The head position is obligatory within this structure. It is most frequently occupied by a noun. The noun however on its own is only a lexical item. In order to acquire some grammatical status and be included in a larger structure it has to be accompanied by some grammatical determinant (a girl). The indefinite article attributes the indefinite gram. status. The determiner position is obligatory. The pre and post modifying positions are optional. The pre-mod. position can be occupied by an adj. - the beautiful girl. A noun can function as a pre-modifier - a film festival. The postmod. position can be occupied by prepositional phrase - the beautiful girl at the first desk. By a participial construction - the beautiful girl sitting at the first desk. By a relative clause - the beautiful girl who is sitting at the first desk.
II. Determiners:
1. articles(a, the) - the use of the articles is not the only possibility for determining nouns in the gram. sense of the word. There are other lingual units that function in a similar way: possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, indefinite, negative, defining pronouns. These words are called determiners. They constitute a closed system. This means that they are of limited number and their number cannot be expanded by the creation of additional elements. Within this system the articles are central that is they have no function independent of the noun they precede. Furthermore the articles have no lexical meaning of their own but only contribute definite gram. status to the nouns they determine. The dependence is not unilateral. The definite article can occur with common countable and uncountable nouns. a/an can occur only with single nouns. the articles and the rest of the elements in this closed system are closely connected with the nouns they determine. In addition to determiners there is a large number of other items that occur in determinative function in combination with some central determiner. We can divide those units into two groups: pre and post determiners. Predet. are unique in occurring before the determiner. they can be grouped into three varieties:
a) all, both, half
b) multiplier - double, twice, thrice
c) fractions - 3/4
Pre-determiners are reciprocally exclusive
2. Can be subdivided into:
a) ordinals - first, other, last. There are two kinds of patterning with ordinal numbers: first, next + cardinal numbers = first two

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