Държавен изпит за Английска филология

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Second, third and the other ordinals cannot be followed by any quantifier and modify singular countable nouns. cardinals and quantifiers are mutually exclusive.
b) Cardinal numbers are used in the following way: one accompanies singular countable nouns, two, three combine with plural countable nouns. ex. all the four brothers are sailors.
c) quantifiers - many, little, more, several. These are mutually exclusive - several occurs without an indefinite article. Ex. several charming girls. Plenty of, a lot of, lots of - also function as post determiners.
3. articles with common nouns - concrete countable nouns are used with generic reference. When it is used like this the distinction between singular and plural and the distinction between definite and indefinite are gram. irrelevant. Ex. Kittens like to play. - A kitten likes to play.
4. common countable nouns used with specific reference. Ex. there is a kitten playing on the sofa. - Some kit.....
5. abstract nouns as a rule do not take an article when standing alone. Ex. you must learn to face life seriously
sometimes concrete nouns acquire abstract meanings - this shift of meaning results in a shift of semantic subclass. Such nouns are treated as uncountable. ex. outside it was night.
III. the use of articles with proper nouns - proper nouns can be divided into two groups: given and descriptive names. Given are conventional designations that tell us nothing about the referent itself. Descriptive are derived from common noun, usually with some defining modifier. Ex. the US of A. Descriptive names as a rule include an article. The Netherlands, the Ukraine. Names of people are among the most typical examples of given names. When standing alone names of people do not as a rule take an article. If however the name is accompanied by an adj., the use of an article becomes necessary. The definite article is included in the structure of the phrase when the adj. denotes some permanent quality of the referent of the noun. Ex. The immortal Shakespeare.
Exceptions: the adj. - young, old, poor, little do not take the article because they are considered to be forming part of the name itself.

3. Number (Morph)
I. Definition - number is a grammatical category of the English noun based on the functional opposition of two categorial sets of forms: singular and plural. The term singular is used when the noun refers to a single individual, place, object, and notion. The meaning of the singular form is "one". The term plural is applied when the noun is used to refer to more than one individual, place, object, and notion. Therefore the opposition of singular vs. plural is semantically an opposition between one vs. more than one. In regard of the category of number all English nouns ca be divided into two major groups:
Variable nouns - have two forms, and invariable nouns - have only one form which may be either singular or plural. Within the group of invariable nouns we have to distinguish between singular and plural. Within the group of the singular we can recognize the following subgroups:
a) mass nouns (silver, milk)
b) uncountable abstract nouns (love, hate)
c) proper nouns (John, the Danube)
d) some nouns in -s (news, physics)
e) substantivised adj. abstract noun (the good, the evil)
Singular invariable nouns are always associated with singular verb forms. Plural invariable nouns always require plural verb forms. Here belong the following subgroups:
a) summation pl. nouns (trousers, glasses)
b) some proper nouns (the Balkans, the Netherlands)
c) some nouns in -s (thanks, goods)
d) unmarked pl. nouns (kettle, police)
e) substantivised adj. :personal plural
II. patterns of pl. formation - variable nouns employ various patterns of pl. formation
a) regular (books, boxes)
b) voicing (house, houses) - it affects spelling as well as pronunciation.
c) -en pl. form (ox, oxen)
d) mutation (man, men) - change in the root vowel
e) zero pl. (aircraft, series, Chinese)
f) forcing pl. patterns - many loan words still retain their pl. ending (datum- data)
III. nouns of differentiated pl.
There are countable nouns the pl. form of which has developed a meaning altogether different from the meaning of the sg. form (arm-arms). Uncountable nouns sometimes can develop pl. forms with differentiated meaning (regard-regards). Pl. of compound nouns (waterfall-waterfalls)
IV. nouns of measure. When a noun of measure is not preceded by a numeral it follows the pattern of pl. formation (thousands of people). If the noun of measure is preceded by a numeral the pl. remains unmarked (two hundred books). Phrases with nouns of measure are often used as pre-mod., in this case they occur in as form which is unmarked for the plural (a five dollar bill). Sometimes mass nouns occur in the pl. This use is stylistically marked (the waters of the Nile).
V. subject - verb concord. Verbs functioning as predicate agree in number and person with the noun subject. This phenomenon is morphologically realized in three different ways:
a) gram. concord: sg. noun accompanied by a sg. verb
b) notional agreement (the public are tired of false promises)
c) proximity (neither the teacher nor the students have the key to that door - neither the students nor the teacher has the....)
VI. rules of agreement:
a) prepositional phrases modifying the subject do not affect subject-verb agreement. (the chair on which you are sitting is broken)
b) relative clauses modifying the subject do not affect subject-verb agreement (a person who reads a lot of books enlarges his knowledge)
c) defining pronouns such as everybody/one require a sg. verb form (everyone is enjoying themselves)
d) after or, nor the verb agrees with the noun immediately preceding it.
e) names of countries are treated as sg. units and require sg. verb forms (the USA is a great country)
f) in collective sports the name as of countries are associated with plural verb forms (France were doing their best to win the cup)
g) with units of time, distance and money sg. verbs should be used (two hundred levs is too expensive for a coat).
h) link verbs should agree with the subject in person and number. (his subject is mammals)
i) the determiners - all/some/most of agree in number with the noun immediately following them. (some of the students failed)

4. Case (Morph)
I. Definition - it is a gram. category of the noun which denotes relations of the noun to other words in the sentence. Case in English is based on the functional opposition of two categorial sets of forms: common case form and genitive case form. The common case form is unmarked. It denotes various relations of the noun to the verb in larger syntactic structures.

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